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In October, a map of PM2.5 concentration by global scientists based on satellite data from NASA was published by Canadian scientists. North China and East China are the most concentrated areas in the world, indicating that air pollution in China It has reached an extremely serious level

Global satellite data show that China's air pollution is the most serious
The Yellow River News Network reported on September 27 To find out exactly how China's air quality compares with the rest of the world, there is a new map describing global air pollution by scientists from NASA's satellite Data drawn from.

Conclusion: The situation does not look very good.

The eastern part of China's industrial zone is on the map with the deepest red areas, indicating that the particle concentration is the highest here.

This does not bode well for the inhabitants there.

And if you're in the very center of this red area, you have to breathe fresh air and have to travel from place to town.

Aaron van Donkelaar and Randall Martin, researchers at Dalhousie University in Canada, used NASA's satellite data to measure global levels of particulate matter and found it impossible to find effective ground-based tests Ways, if any, are flawed in many ways.

This map is published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

It should be noted that the data used in the map from 2001 to 2006.

However, as reported by the Wall Street Journal in July, authorities have confirmed that China's air quality has not only continued to improve but has steadily deteriorated.

According to an article published by NASA, health officials say tiny particles can enter the lungs and blood through the defense of human cilia, triggering chronic diseases such as asthma, cardiovascular disease and bronchitis.

NASA Releases Globally Contaminant Particulate Map China is the worst-case scenario

Global pollution particle concentration map

Epidemiologists suspect that some of the polluted particles in the air make up to millions of people prematurely die each year.

However, in many developing countries, due to the lack of surface air pollution detectors and other realities, we are unable to obtain specific data on such contaminant particles, even for rough statistics.

These problematic particles, known as fine particles (PM2.5), have a diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 microns, about one tenth of that of human hair.

These small particles can penetrate the body's normal defensive channels and penetrate deep into the lungs.

In order to compensate for the lack of surface PM 2.5 measurements, environmental experts hope to use satellites to provide a panoramic view of the Earth.

However, satellite instruments often find it difficult to achieve accurate measurements of fine particles in near-surface air.

The problem is that most satellite instruments can not distinguish between those suspended above the earth's surface and suspended in the atmosphere.

In addition, clouds also obscure the perspective of satellite instruments.

There are also bright terrestrial surfaces, such as snow, deserts, and some central areas of the city, which have also greatly impeded the observation of satellite instruments.

However, this summer the satellite's horizons have become somewhat clear.

As a result, the latest issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was able to publish the first global map of PM2.5 long-term observations.

Canadian researchers, Aaron van Donkelaar and Randall Martin from Dalhousie University, a beautiful harbor town in Halifax, Nova Scotia, combine aerosols from two NASA satellite instrumentation monitors The totals were added and combined with the calculated aerosol vertical distribution of the computer model to create this map.
Their maps show the average PM2.5 from 2001 to 2006.

It provides one of the most comprehensive views to date on this fine-grained matter that is harmful to human health.

However, the new hybrid technology does not give them a more accurate measurement of pollution index relative to those developed regions that have long established perfect ground monitoring networks.

However, this map, for the first time, provides some developing countries with PM2.5 satellite measurements, and these countries have never had an assessment of their level of air pollution.

The figure shows that the PM 2.5 pollution index is quite serious, extending from the Sahara of North Africa to a large area in East Asia.

Combined with population density considerations, it shows that over 80% of the world's population is breathing heavily polluted air and the pollution index even exceeds the WHO minimum safeguards value of 10 micrograms per cubic meter.

The level of PM2.5 in the United States is relatively low, but the pollution in some central and western central and eastern regions is still clearly visible.

"We're going to continue refining this map, but it's been a remarkable leap forward," said atmospheric scientist Martin Martin, one of the map's creators. "For those areas that do not have the capacity to make surface measurements, we want the data to be good for them Can be helpful. "

Discussion on the health effects of PM2.5

Let's take a deep breath

Even if the air looks pure and transparent, to be sure, you have inhaled millions of PM2.5 particles.

Although not visible to the naked eye, these particles are ubiquitous in the earth's atmosphere and their natural and man-made mechanisms.

Researchers are still struggling to quantify the exact percentage of PM2.5 natural and anthropogenic factors, and it is clear that both sources have contributed to the hot spots in the new map.

For example, winds have rolled up a lot of dust in the Arab and Saharan regions.

In many highly urbanized areas, such as eastern China and northern India, there are many power plants and factories that do not have a filter installed, generating thousands of miles of sulphate and soot particles during coal combustion.

Motor vehicle exhaust also produces a significant amount of nitrate and other particulates.

In addition, there are also soot particles from crop waste incineration and diesel engine combustion, which scientists call black carbon.

Arden Pope, a professor at Brigham Young University who is a professor at Brigham Young University and one of the world's leading experts in the field, explains to us that artificially produced particles often dominate urban air.

People breathe the air every day, and the particles are a headache for medical professionals.

This is because smaller PM2.5 particles penetrate the defensive hair-like structures of the human respiratory tract, the nasal cilia in the nose.

These nasal cilia play a pretty good role in the human body structure, screening larger particles.

Some tiny particles can reach the lungs of the human body. Some ultrafine particles can even penetrate into the bloodstream, triggering the entire range of human diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and more.

The American Heart Association estimates that in the United States alone, air contaminated with PM2.5 particles causes about 60,000 deaths each year.

Although we already know that PM2.5 is a type of particle that can pose a human health hazard, researchers have not yet successfully screened this particular type of particle responsible for this.

Professor Pope said: "What types of particles are most harmful to the human body is still controversial on this issue, we are still not yet clear, the most dangerous, in the end is sulfate, nitrate, or fine dust particles."

The biggest crux of the problem is that all kinds of particles in PM2.5 are mixed, and new mixed particles are often produced. It is very difficult for satellite instruments and ground monitoring instruments to distinguish and resolve the individual particles.

Satellite technology guides the future of PM2.5 research

For an attempt to solve this problem, and other unprivileged researchers of PM2.5, this new map, along with related research around it, will guide their research direction in the future.

For example, the basic question is: What is the exact number of people who are endangered by air pollution all over the world?

Martin said: "We can clearly see that a large number of people are exposed to high concentrations of suspended particles in the environment, but so far, no one has to study this relationship between human death and disease. Epidemiology Main Concerned about the developed countries, such as North America and Europe. "

Now, with this map and some relevant data, epidemiologists can begin researching how long-term exposure to high concentrations of particulates can have an impact on human health.

In particular, the rapid development of cities in Asia, and some dusty areas in North Africa, the study has been lacking.

This new information will also be of great benefit to some parts of the United States or Western Europe, where the results of long-term use of surface-based probes have been used as a measure of air quality.

Researchers collected data from several instruments, including multi-angle imaging spectrometers (MISRs) mounted on Terra satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on Aqua and Terra satellites. In addition, they used a chemical Delivery model, which is also GEOS-Chem technology to draw this new map.

However, the researchers making this map underline that we can not draw conclusions about the PM2.5 emissions levels in various regions of the world from this map.

Ralph Kahn, a remote sensing expert involved in the release of the report, from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, explained in detail that although researchers Aaron van Donkelaar provided us with data fusion technology A clearer global picture of fine particles, however, for some regions, uncertainties may have their PM2.5 estimates 25% or more lower.

To increase their understanding of suspended particles, NASA scientists plan to participate in a series of live events, as well as numerous satellite missions.

In the case of NASA Goddard Space Center, for example, center managers are working to strengthen and expand a global network called AERONET, which closely links all surface particle monitors.

In addition, scientists from the Goddard Space Institute in New York (GISS) will also begin analyzing the first data received from Glory Satellite later this year.

The satellite carries an innovative instrument, the Polarizer, which takes a new approach to measure fine particle characteristics and complements existing space aerosol-based instruments.

Raymond Hoff, head of Goddard's Earth Science and Technology Center, admits: "We have a lot more to do to measure the full potential of air pollution using satellite technology." He recently published a paper in the Air and Waste Management Society's academic journal The series goes into a nutshell, and then he adds: "But that's already an important step for us." (Translation from NASA Web site)

What is aerosol PM2.5?

Aerosol refers to the ultrafine suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere. PM2.5 refers to particles in the atmosphere of less than or equal to 2.5 microns in diameter, also known as particulate matter capable of entering the lungs.

Its diameter is less than 1/20 of the thickness of a human hair.

Although PM2.5 is only a very small component of the earth's atmosphere, it has important implications for air quality and visibility.

Compared with coarser atmospheric particulates, PM2.5 has a small particle size and is rich in a large amount of toxic and hazardous substances. Its residence time in the atmosphere is long and its transport distance is far greater. Therefore, PM2.5 has a greater impact on human health and the quality of the atmospheric environment.

Respirable particulates and total suspended particulates are two of the more familiar air pollutants in the Urban Air Quality Journal or the weekly newspaper.

Inhalable particles, also referred to as PM10, refer to particles of the respiratory system that have a diameter equal to or less than 10 microns and can enter the human respiratory system. Total suspended particles, also known as PM100, are particles less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter.

Sometimes, scholars also equate PM2.5 with aerosols. "The so-called aerosols, fine particles, in fact, mean fine particles in the atmosphere of 2.5 microns or less in diameter, or PM2.5 for short." The United Nations Environment Program - Jiang Dahe, director of Tongji University's Office of Environment and Sustainable Development and Tongji University, said that the main source of PM2.5 is the residue that is emitted after burning during routine power generation, industrial production and automobile exhaust emissions, most of which contain heavy metals Other toxic substances.

The PM 2.5 standard was proposed by the United States in 1997 primarily to more effectively monitor fine particulate matter that is harmful to the human body that has been neglected in the old standards, which has emerged as the industry becomes more developed.

PM2.5 index has become an important measure of air pollution control index.

PM2.5 "killer": China's air pollution has reached appalling levels

As shown in Fig., PM2.5 concentration index reached 80, almost all concentrated in North China, East China, the degree of air pollution appalling ... ...

PM2.5 "killer" how to harm you and me

Fatal "killer" generation

Aerosol PM2.5 These ultra-fine particles, the source is divided into two kinds of natural and human activities.

Natural sources include smoke from volcanic eruptions, soil particles blown by the wind, and fine particles and cosmic dust from meteor burning.

The most important sources are man-made, industrial waste gas from the combustion of coal, oil and other minerals, as well as tail gas emissions from motor vehicles, including dust, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and organic hydrocarbons dispersed into the air. A series of photochemical reactions formed secondary contaminants.

Ding Yihui academician: Aerosol pollution of air and offset the greenhouse effect

Aerosols are very harmful

Ding Yihui believes that due to air pollution and climate change to a large extent have a common reason, that is mainly caused by the combustion of fossil fuel emissions, thus reducing and controlling air pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions to protect the climate should be consistent action of.

In order to achieve maximum economic savings and win-win results, a coordinated strategy to reduce emissions from air pollution and climate change should be adopted, that is, a unified rather than separate scientific research and response strategy should be adopted.

If we try to keep global warming at a prescribed threshold, we should not only consider CO2 emission reductions, but also consider measures to improve air quality and their climate consequences.

It is imperative and urgent to adopt and develop collaborative or coupled research and response strategies.

This is a collective strategy to tackle air pollution and climate change and will be an important science and policy issue in the next 20 to 30 years.

For some time, the impact of atmospheric aerosol particles on climate change and its mitigation effect on global warming have become hot topics for experts and scholars and relevant media.

Our reporter recently on the aerosol related issues an exclusive interview with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, National Advisory Council member, the National Weather Service special adviser on climate change, Mr. Ding Yihui.

The hazards of aerosols can not be ignored, but there are also available aspects

Ding Yihui told reporters that atmospheric aerosols are the main causes of air pollution, especially in industrial areas where emissions of human activities are very strong, in major cities, and in areas where biomass burning frequently occurs.

Atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on many aspects of the economy and society, such as agriculture, water resources, human health and urbanization.

He said the impact of atmospheric aerosol on the city includes many aspects, first of all pollution of the air, endangering the health of the population; secondly, to reduce the visibility of the city and make the frequency of haze days increased significantly.

He told reporters that in many cities in China, the number of haze days has been increasing and the visibility has been significantly reduced in many cities over the past 20 to 30 years. At present, most of the eastern part of China has more than 100 days of haze, of which the metropolitan area has over 150 days. In some areas, such as central Liaoning, haze Long-term more than 300 days.

According to the statistics of Shenzhen Meteorological Bureau, haze days in Shenzhen average about 160 days per year, and the average visibility has dropped from 20 kilometers in the early 1980s to about 10 kilometers now.

Ding Yihui said that atmospheric aerosols have a great impact on agriculture and ecosystems, mainly due to the reduction of direct solar radiation reaching them on the ground caused by them.

In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, one of the major agricultural areas where rice and winter wheat grow in China, the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground can be reduced by 5 to 30% due to the scattering and absorption of atmospheric aerosols, affecting nearly 70% of the crop At least cut 5 to 30%.

Sulfate aerosols are also the main cause of acid rain.

Ding Yihui told reporters that aerosols can cause serious harm to human health, the greatest impact on human health is floating in the air for a long time the diameter of 0.1 ~ 10μm aerosol particles, it can be directly inhaled into the respiratory tract, into the lungs Or into the alveoli, and can enter the blood leading to the body, due to its own toxicity or carry toxic substances, which will cause great harm to human health; atmospheric aerosol heavy metal components can endanger the body's various parts, including nerves, Stomach, heart, lung, liver, kidney, skin, etc .; PAHs, nitrosamines and other chemicals in the aerosol are carcinogenic to the human body.

Ding Yihui believes that while we emphasize the hazards of aerosols and strengthen air pollution control, we should also see the other side of the aerosol -

Aerosols can offset some of the warming caused by greenhouse gases

Ding Yihui said that global climate change is mainly caused by the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases, and air pollution is mainly caused by aerosol particles suspended in the air, they are mainly formed by the combustion of fossil fuels.

Air pollution and climate change play a role in each other. On the one hand, aerosols cause air pollution, but also have obvious climate effects and change the role of the hydrosphere. On the other hand, climate change can also aggravate and amplify air pollution on the human body Health, agricultural production and ecosystem impacts.

Both are closely related to the scientific issue and therefore should adopt a unified rather than separate scientific research strategy.

He told reporters that the energy balance of the atmospheric system is the driving force that determines the state of the earth's climate (such as ground temperature).

The solar shortwave radiation received by the geogas system must equal the longwave or infrared radiation emitted by the geogas system itself. If this balance is disturbed or destroyed, the earth's climate will change.

The physical quantity that measures whether or not the energy balance of an earth's gas system deviates from its equilibrium state is called radiative forcing (RF).

If RF is positive, the energy received by the gas system is greater than the energy lost and the gas system will warm or warmer, and otherwise cool.

The greenhouse effect of greenhouse gases causes the longwave radiation emitted or lost by the geogas system to decrease. Since the incident solar radiation is constant, the RF is positive and the geothermal system will heat up, resulting in global warming.

He said that atmospheric aerosol particles reduce the solar radiation reaching the ground by scattering and absorbing sunlight and have a cooling effect that can offset part of the warming caused by greenhouse gases, which is the most important effect of atmospheric aerosol on the Earth's climate A role.

On average, the overall climatic effects of all atmospheric aerosols, regardless of the effect of aerosols, are the negative radiative forcing on the ground that reduces the Earth's temperature.

This effect is just the opposite of the warming effect of greenhouse gases, which has the effect of offsetting the warming of the greenhouse effect.

This is also evidenced by some large-scale atmospheric aerosol experiments in the world.

Whether this role of aerosol can be rationally utilized, a win-win situation between controlling air pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions should be achieved -

There is a need for a unified and not separate response to air pollution and climate change

Ding Yihui said that due to air pollution and climate change to a large extent have a common reason, that is mainly caused by the combustion of fossil fuel emissions, thus reducing and controlling air pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions to protect the climate should be consistent action of.

Some studies have pointed out that the increase of atmospheric aerosols reduces the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground, which is the opposite of and offsetting the effect of greenhouse gas warming.

50% of the surface warming caused by greenhouse gases may be offset by the cooling effect of aerosols. Once the aerosols are removed, the greenhouse gas warming will be more pronounced, which will further increase the pressure of CO2 emission reduction.

Therefore, the two issues of air quality and climate change can not be solved in isolation. They are closely coupled.

Ding Yihui believes that it is imperative to develop more complex earth system models and long-term monitoring systems for climate and biogeochemical variables.

Using this complex Earth system model to more accurately simulate and predict these two important physical, chemical and biological processes and feedback mechanisms is a major and challenging task.

If we are to try to keep the global warming at a set threshold, we should consider not only CO2 emission reductions, but also measures to improve air quality and its climate consequences.

He told reporters that the current international calculation has been made, if not consider the offsetting effect of aerosol cooling, the world will increase the temperature increase again?

At the same time is also studying, in this case, the global responsibility for reducing emissions will be how much?

In the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), a more complete and in-depth summary of the climatic effects of atmospheric aerosols is made and it is clearly pointed out that the issue of climate change and air quality is tightly coupled through aerosol together.

At the same time, it has specially studied the trend of temperature change in the next 100 years.

If the cooling effect of removing all anthropogenic emissions of sulfide aerosols in the new climate model is removed, the result shows that the global average temperature will rise by about 0.8 ° C.

Ding Yihui stressed that in order to obtain the maximum economic savings and win-win results, we should take coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of air pollution and climate change, which means we should adopt a unified rather than separate scientific research and response strategies.

In the future, as the air pollution continues to be managed and improved, the aerosol cooling effect can be greatly reduced, which will further increase the future emission reduction of greenhouse gases. Otherwise, global temperatures will increase at a faster rate and magnitude.

Therefore, it is imperative and urgent to adopt and formulate a coordinated or coupled research and countermeasure strategy.

This is a collective strategy to deal with air pollution and climate change.

This will be an important science and policy issue in the next 20 to 30 years.

He said that such a strategy is especially important for developing countries like China that are developing rapidly because both of these problems not only exist simultaneously but also cause both serious air pollution and greenhouse gases due to both rapid economic growth and energy consumption. Gas emissions increased rapidly.

Addressing these two issues from the same source is not only economically more effective, but also addresses both the atmospheric environment and climate change issues.

He suggested that the energy structure and industrial restructuring should also consider the integrated or integrated technologies of greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions so that the emissions of both can be reduced and controlled. The first part of the organization should be organized to write the first complete Chinese gas Sol-Emissions Inventory; Further Improvements to Observational Networks of Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols, in particular Aerosol Observations Network Needs to be Expanded and Encrypted; Studies on the Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Change Interactions between Air Pollution and Climate Change and Development of Climate Modes (global and regional models) and air pollution models are mutually coupled and nested, providing a scientific basis and support for the business forecasting of medium and long-term air pollution in China and its environmental and climatic impact. Establishing coupled air pollution and climate Variance risk assessment systems provide an assessment of the consequences and severity of impacts on the social and economic sectors, based on their interaction and future scenarios.
Atmospheric aerosols are a complex chemical mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the air, ranging in size from ultrafine particles of only a few nanometers to coarse particles of several microns in diameter or more.

Between them is a so-called fine particle aerosol with a diameter of 0.1 μm to several μm, so the typical scale for atmospheric aerosols is 0.001 to 10 μm, which has a residence time in the atmosphere of at least a few hours and an average of Up to a few days, a week to several weeks, or even years (such as stratospheric aerosols).

Atmospheric aerosols can be emitted directly as particulate matter (primary sources) or indirectly from gaseous precursors through the chemical reaction (eg photochemical reaction) in the atmosphere (secondary sources).

From the source of emissions Atmospheric aerosols can be divided into two types of natural sources and man-made sources.

Killing principle: the smaller, the more deadly

The most direct side effects of these ultra-fine suspended particulates (including PM2.5) in the air are haze and the higher the haze, the greater the haze.

If you've been through severe haze days and walked down the street, you could soon spit out some of the "coarse" dust particles in the air (more than 5 microns in diameter) by coughing and spitting, but irritating the local mucous membranes Role, may cause chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis.

However, such "rough" particles are not the most harmful to the human body and their particle size is less than 2.5 microns (ie, PM2.5) "can enter the lung particles", it is fatal to human health.

Zhong Nanshan: haze weather carcinogenic over nicotine Yangtze Evening News

Automobile exhaust is one of the main causes of haze formation

September 25, the People's Daily overseas edition published a "nightmare haze winding city", focusing on the haze phenomenon in China's cities, and to include the city of air pollution problems Species.

According to the definition of the Bureau of Meteorology, haze refers to a large number of very fine dry dust particles uniformly floating in the air, so that the level of visibility is less than 10.0km of air generally cloudy phenomenon.

Yesterday, the reporter specifically interviewed meteorologists and respiratory specialists in Nanjing. Experts pointed out that the haze contains many substances that are harmful to the human body and will not only stay in the lungs of humans but also enter the bloodstream.

In haze days of high incidence, should try to avoid morning exercises, elderly children and allergy patients should pay special attention.

Most of the particles in Nanjing air will stay in the lungs

In daily life, dust from the construction site, combustion of fossil fuels, and exhaust from vehicles can be released into the air to form aerosols.

Nanjing University of Information Science and Engineering experts have shown that the most impact on the human body aerosol particles, in fact, 0.4 to 5 microns of particles, the naked eye can not see.

Particles larger than 5 microns in diameter are easily blocked by the respiratory tract, and some can be excreted by cough and spitting. However, they can stimulate the local mucosa and cause chronic rhinitis and pharyngitis.

However, this "rough" particle is not the most harmful to humans. For example, particles of less than 2.5 microns in diameter are called "infiltrating particles," and their diameter is less than 1/20 the thickness of a human hair.

50% of them will be deposited in the lungs causing lung sclerosis, posing a great threat to human health.

In Nanjing, the fine particle concentration of 0.1 to 2.5 microns in diameter, more than 3000 in 1 cubic centimeter, the largest close to 1 cubic centimeter 30,000, is the airborne particulate "mainstream."

In these particles into the lungs contains some harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other compounds, is a carcinogen.

In addition, there are particles of less than 0.1 microns in diameter called "ultrafine particles" or "nanoparticles."

Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology experts have found that in Nanjing, the diameter of 0.01 to 0.1 micron concentration of ultrafine particles is significantly increased.

This means that most of the particles floating in the air in Nanjing can stay in the lungs and enter the bloodstream.

This is also an important reason for the recurrence of asthma and chronic bronchitis.

Harsh weather causes more lung cancer than nicotine

Zhong Nanshan Academy of Sciences has reminded in public, haze weather caused by fierce lung cancer in nicotine!

According to authoritative statistics, the number of smokers in our country did not increase obviously. However, the number of lung cancer patients has increased by 45.6% over the past 30 years, which is definitely related to air pollution.

According to a survey conducted by the Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention on the death of residents in Nanjing last year, the death toll from lung cancer is still the highest among cancer deaths.

According to the statistics of Jiangsu Tumor Hospital, there were over 10,000 lung cancer outpatients last year, an increase of 40%, which is one of the most obvious malignant tumors.

Nanjing Chest Hospital this year, every month can be admitted to 80-100 cases of lung cancer patients.

Li Tian, â€&lsqauo;â€&lsqauo;chief physician of Respiratory Department of Nanjing Chest Hospital, told reporters that patients with lung cancer ten years ago could say less, and now the incidence is so unimaginable.

There are three most obvious changes in lung cancer patients: First, the past are mainly squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs, which has been confirmed with nicotine in tobacco is closely related to; but now the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma decreased, and adenocarcinoma To more than half; Second, the incidence of women increased significantly, and most women have no history of smoking, mostly adenocarcinoma; Third, the past cities than rural high, and now the incidence of rural lung cancer increased.

Experts point out that this series of changes can prove that the increasingly serious air pollution and the rise of lung cancer are closely related.

Every year when the fog filled, dust and dust particles increased, major hospitals in Nanjing asthma, chronic bronchitis patients significantly increased.

8 o'clock in the morning and evening should not go out exercise

"Now I advise people not to morning exercise, because the morning air is the most dirty!" Li Tian, â€&lsqauo;â€&lsqauo;director told reporters.

Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology experts on this have also been studied around 8:00 and around the evening, the fine particles suspended in the atmosphere ranked first and second, the lowest concentration in the afternoon.

Because the middle of the night to early morning, the atmosphere in a stable state, the general formation of the inversion layer near the ground, like a big lid, the dirty things are "covered" inside, is not conducive to the proliferation of pollutants.

Coupled with the morning rush hour, the car exhaust a large amount of exhaust gas, making the maximum concentration of pollutants at 8:00 am.

The more people exercise, the more toxic substances inhaled into the lungs, virtually become a vacuum cleaner.

Autumn and winter seasons are frequent haze in central and eastern China. When haze weather occurs, outdoor activities should be avoided as much as possible.

If traveling, it is best to wear a mask, scarf.

Weak children should try to stay indoors and prevent respiratory diseases.

This time should also be less open the window, because the indoor air than the outdoor clean.

Continuous haze days will also make patients with heart disease and lung disease symptoms worse, healthy people will also have symptoms, go out and should clean the face and exposed skin.

In Dandan

● Do you know?

Nearly a third of Nanjing is haze every year in the past five years

After studying the meteorological data from 1961 to 2006, Nanjing Environmental Monitoring Center Station found that the haze days in Nanjing generally showed an upward trend, increasing by a hundredfold in 45 years.

"In the 1960s, there were only a few days of haze each year. Among them, the haze days were 0 in 1961, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1972 and 1974; for the first time in 1991, it exceeded 100 days, The haze days of up to 158 days in 1994 and 106 days in 2005. "In the past five years, an average of 130 days of haze occurred each year.

Nanjing 40 years visibility down 2.5 km

According to a professor at Nanjing University's School of Environment, according to the annual change of Nanjing's visibility over the past 40 years, the visibility of Nanjing has dropped by 2.5 kilometers with the increasing haze days.

On the icons provided by the experts, the reporter saw that the visibility of Nanjing was declining year by year from 1965 to 2005. In the 1960s, the average visibility of Nanjing citizens was 6.5 km and in the 1970s it was 5 km. In the 1980s 4.5 km, in 2005 only saw 4 km.

"The haze is the culprit," said the expert.

Deadly "killer": a great harm, but extremely difficult to prevent and cure

The smaller PM2.5 particles penetrate the defensive hair-like structure of the human respiratory tract, the nasal cilia in the nasal cavity, into the body and trigger the entire range of human diseases.

Cardiac disease, arteriosclerosis: PM2.5 particles are very likely to cause cardiovascular disease. The higher the PM2.5 concentration, the hazy weather, the higher the morbidity and the lower the patient's resistance.

The American Heart Association estimates that in the United States alone, air contaminated with PM2.5 particles causes about 60,000 deaths each year.

NASA Releases Globally Contaminant Particulate Map China is the worst-case scenario

Global pollution particle concentration map

Epidemiologists suspect that some of the polluted particles in the air make up to millions of people prematurely die each year.

However, in many developing countries, due to the lack of surface air pollution detectors and other realities, we are unable to obtain specific data on such contaminant particles, even for rough statistics.

These problematic particles, known as fine particles (PM2.5), have a diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 microns, about one tenth of that of human hair.

These small particles can penetrate the body's normal defensive channels and penetrate deep into the lungs.

In order to compensate for the lack of surface PM 2.5 measurements, environmental experts hope to use satellites to provide a panoramic view of the Earth.

However, satellite instruments often find it difficult to achieve accurate measurements of fine particles in near-surface air.

The problem is that most satellite instruments can not distinguish between those suspended above the earth's surface and suspended in the atmosphere.

In addition, clouds also obscure the perspective of satellite instruments.

There are also bright terrestrial surfaces, such as snow, deserts, and some central areas of the city, which have also greatly impeded the observation of satellite instruments.
However, this summer, the field of view of the satellite observation becomes a little clearer. Therefore, the latest issue of "Environmental Health Perspectives (Environmental Health Perspectives)" magazine to be published in the world's first map of PM2.5 long Canadian researchers from Dalhousie University (Dalhousie University, the school is located in the beautiful port city [FIG: color from dark blue, light blue, the yellow, dark red, representing the increasing concentration of PM2.5] Their map shows the average between 2001 and 2006 PM2.5 is. Fine particles which endanger human health research for this provides a far the most comprehensive view. However, those who have already established a relatively developed areas to improve groundHowever, some developing countries this map for the first time to provide PM2.5 satellite measurements, these countries have never had to assess their levels of air pollution. The figure shows that extends from Sahara to the North East of a large area, PM2.5 serious pollution index. Combined with population density considerations, it shows that more than 80 percent of the world's population is breathing polluted air, the pollution index even more than the World Health Organization minimum security value given that 10 micrograms per cubic meter. US PM2.5 levels are relatively low, but some of the Midwest and the central region of eastern pollution, is still clearly visible. "We have to continue to improve this map, but it has been a great leap forward," one of the founders of the map, an atmospheric scientist Martin said: "For those who can not afford to carry out surface area measurements, we hope that these data to them can benefit. " Explore the health effects of PM2.5Let's take a deep breath. Even if the air looks clean and transparent, be sure that you have inhaled millions of PM2.5 particles. Although this particle the human eye is not visible, but it is everywhere in the Earth's atmosphere, and their formation mechanism natural factors, man Researchers are still trying to quantify the precise percentage of PM2.5 natural and anthropogenic factors, it is evident that these two sources are hot spots for those new map played a role in fueling.For example, high winds in the Arab and sub In many highly urbanized areas, such as eastern China and northern India, there are many power plants and factories do not have to use a filter device, which in the process of coal combustion, resulting in a surplus one thousand tired million for sulphate and soot particles. Vehicle exhaust also produced a considerable amount of nitrates and other particles. In addition, crop waste incineration soot particles and diesel engine combustion, what scientists call black carbon material.Brigham Young University professor of the United States, one of epidemiologists, and the world's leading experts in the field as we explained Arden Pope, urban air, the particles tend to artificially produce dominate. Every day these people breathe air, while the particles also allow medical experts the most headaches. This is because the smaller PM2.5 particles can penetrate the human respiratory tract defenses hair These nasal cilia in the human body structure play a very good screening effect of larger particles.Some small particles can be as deep as the lungs, and some ultrafine particles can even penetrate into the blood, causing the entire range of human diseases, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and so on and so forth. The American Heart Association estimates that in the US alone, PM2.5 particles are air pollution has led to about 60,000 deaths each year.Although we already know, PM2.5 is a type of particle can cause human health risks, the researchers have not yet succeeded in screening out the particular type of particle responsible for this purpose. Professor Pope On the Road: "What type of particle most harmful to the human body, people are still debating on this issue, we are not yet clear, the most harmful, in the end sulfates, nitrates, or fine dust particles."The maximum current is the crux: PM2.5 particles mixed in various, and often also produced new hybrid particle, satellite and terrestrial equipment monitoring equipment is difficult to distinguish a single particle parsing therein. PM2.5 satellite technology to guide future researchFor trying to solve this problem, PM2.5 and other unsolved mysteries researchers concerned, this new map, and research around it, will guide their research direction in the future. For example, the most basic question: around the world, the exact number of health Martin said: "We can clearly see that a large number of people exposed to high concentrations of suspended particles in the environment, but, so far, no one has to study this relationship in human death and disease epidemiology major. concern or developed countries, such as North America and Europe. "Now, with this map and some related data, epidemiologists can begin study of long In particular, those fast The new information for the United States or Western Europe in some areas will also benefit those areas has long been using the results of the surface of the detector as a measure of air quality.Researchers collect data from multiple instruments, there is mounted on the multi-angle Terra satellite imaging spectrometer (the MISR), as well as Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (the MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua, in addition, they also use a chemical delivery model, that GEOS-Chem techniques to draw this new map. However, the production of this map, researchers emphasize that we can not draw conclusions from this map on emissions of PM2.5 level in every area of â€&lsqauo;â€&lsqauo;the world. Remote sensing expert Ralph Kahn from Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Goddard Space Flight Center), and is involved in publishing the report explained this in detail, although the researchers Aaron van Donkelaar fusion technology through the application of data, provided us a clearer vision of the world of fine particles, however, for some areas in terms of uncertainty may make their estimates lower PM2.5 by 25% or more.In order to improve the understanding of suspended particles, NASA scientists plan to participate in a series of live events, as well as numerous satellite missions. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, for example, center managers are working to strengthen and expand a global network called AERONET, the network will closely monitor all of the particle surface. In addition, later this year, scientists from The satellite carries an innovative instrument Raymond Hoff Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center director, admits: "To realize the full potential of satellite technology to measure air pollution, we have a lot of work to do." He recently published a in "Air & Waste Management Association," Academic Journals series of detailed discussion, then, he added:. "but this is an important step for us" (Yeeyan translation agency national Aeronautics and space Administration (NASA) website article) Hardening of the lungs, lung cancer killer: 50% of them will be deposited in the lungs caused by hardening of the lungs, causing a great threat to human health. In Nanjing, the concentration of fine particles in diameter 0.1 to 2.5 microns, in one cubic centimeter to more than 3,000, the maximum accessible 1 cm3 30000, is the "mainstream" particulate matter in the air. These particles may be in the lung, comprising some harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other compounds, is a carcinogen, lung cancer is the number one killer created.Asthma and chronic bronchitis: particle size less than 0.1 micron, referred to as "ultrafine particle" or "nanoparticles." Nanjing University of Information Engineering experts study found that, in Nanjing, the concentration of ultrafine particles in the diameter of 0.01 and 0.1 microns is significantly increased. This means that most of the particles Nanjing is floating in the air can remain in the lungs, into the bloodstream. This is also an important reason for suffering asthma and chronic bronchitis old recurrent.And to deal with this deadly killer, there are fatal crux: Zhong Nanshan: haze cancer rates than nicotineAutomobile exhaust is one of the main formation of haze daysLONDON September 27 news: September 25, People's Daily published a "nightmare haze wrapped around the city," a text, focused on the Chinese city haze phenomenon, and included it in the atmosphere of a city's pollution species. The weather bureau defined, refers to a large number of very fine haze of the dry dust particles and the like floating in the air uniformly, so that visibility is less than the level of the common air 10.0km clouding. Yesterday, the reporter interviewed the Nanjing weather experts and respiratory medicine specialists, experts pointed out that the haze contains a lot of harmful substances, not only will stay in people's lungs, but also into the bloodstream. In a period of high incidence of haze days, morning exercise should be avoided, children and elderly patients with allergies and be extra attention.Most of Nanjing airborne particles can remain in the lungsIn daily life, the exhaust gas dust, fossil fuel burning material, and vehicle emissions from the site into the air, can form an aerosol. Studies of Nanjing University of Information Engineering experts have shown that human aerosol particles to the greatest impact, in fact, 0.4 to 5 micron particles, the naked eye can not see. Particle diameter greater than 5 microns susceptible respiratory retaining part, will be discharged from coughing, spitting vitro, but have a stimulating effect on the local mucosa, can cause chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis.However, this "coarse" particles are not harmful to human body, for example, particle size less than 2.5 microns referred to as "particles into the lung", its diameter is less than the thickness of a human hair 1/20. 50% of them will be deposited cause hardening of the lungs, causing a great threat to human health in the lungs. In Nanjing, the concentration of fine particles in diameter 0.1 to 2.5 microns, in one cubic centimeter to more than 3,000, the maximum accessible 1 cm3 30000, is the "mainstream" particulate matter in the air. These particles may be in the lung, comprising some of the harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other compounds, is a carcinogen.In addition, particle size less than 0.1 microns, referred to as "ultrafine particle" or "nanoparticles." Nanjing University of Information Engineering experts study found that, in Nanjing, the concentration of ultrafine particles in the diameter of 0.01 and 0.1 microns is significantly increased. This means that most of the particles Nanjing is floating in the air can remain in the lungs, into the bloodstream. This is also an important reason for suffering asthma and chronic bronchitis old recurrent.Haze caused by the incidence of lung cancer than nicotineZhong Nanshan, academician had warned publicly, haze caused by lung cancer in fierce nicotine! According to authoritative statistics, the number of smokers has not significantly increased, but lung cancer patients in the last 30 years actually increased by 45.6%, which is definitely a relationship with air pollution.According to the CDC survey last year in Nanjing Nanjing residents died, the mortality rate of lung cancer is still the highest number of cancer deaths. According to Jiangsu Provincial Tumor Hospital statistics show that last year more than 10,000 cases of lung cancer outpatients, an increase of 40%, is one of the most obvious increase in malignant tumors. Nanjing Chest Hospital this year, every month admitted to 80Nanjing Chest Hospital Respiratory chief physician Li Tian told reporters, ten years ago lung cancer patients can be said is relatively small, and now the high incidence of people imagine. The patients with lung cancer, there are three of the most significant changes: First, the past of lung cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, which has been shown to closely related to the nicotine in tobacco; but now squamous cell carcinoma and small cell cancer incidence decreased, while adenocarcinoma accounts more than half; Second, significantly increased the incidence of women, and most women without a history of smoking, mostly adenocarcinoma; Third, higher than the rural city in the past, and now rising incidence of lung cancer in rural areas. Experts point out that this series of changes can attest, worsening air pollution and increased lung cancer have a close relationship. Every year when the heavy fog, dust and dirt particles increased, major hospitals in Nanjing asthma, chronic bronchitis patients increased significantly old.Around 8 o'clock in the morning and evening exercise should not go out" This expert Nanjing Information Engineering University, has done a study, around 8 o'clock in the morning and evening, before and after, the atmosphere of fine particulate matter suspended ranked first and second in the afternoon lowest concentration. Since early morning to late at night, the atmosphere is in a stable state, generally easy to form the inversion layer near the ground, like a big pot, put dirty things "cover" on the inside, is not conducive to the spread of pollutants. When coupled with the morning rush hour, cars emit large amounts of exhaust, so that the concentration of pollutants 8:00 at the highest. And the more people exercise, the more poison into the lungs, virtually become airborne toxic cleaners.Autumn and winter in the eastern part of our country is haze If you travel, it is best to wear a mask, scarf. Weakened immune child should stay indoors as much as possible, to prevent suffering from respiratory diseases. This time should be less windows, because indoor air is cleaner than outdoor. Continued haze days also cause heart disease and lung disease symptoms worsened symptoms can also occur in healthy people, should come back after going out to clean the face and bare skin. Dandan ● Did you know? Nanjing is the third of the past five years the annual haze daysNanjing Environmental Monitoring Center station on the meteorological data from 1961 to 2006 found that Nanjing haze days overall upward trend, 45 years actually increased a hundredfold. "Nanjing visibility down 2.5 km in 40 yearsProfessor of Nanjing University School of Environment, told reporters, according to the annual variation in 40 years Nanjing sky visibility point of view, the haze days increases every year, Nanjing, visibility dropped 2.5 km. On the icon provided by experts correspondent saw, in 1965 "Killer difficile: Professor Pope On the Road: "What type of particle most harmful to the human body, people are still debating on this issue, we are not yet clear, the most harmful, in the end sulfates, nitrates, or subtle dust particles. " New hybrid particle: conventional sticking point maximum: PM2.5 particles mixed in various, and often also produced new hybrid particle, satellite and terrestrial equipment monitoring equipment is difficult to distinguish a single particle parsing therein. In China, this "killer" more and more powerful, seems to have been not cure "Killer" increasingly rampantAlthough no specific statistical data on PM2.5, but a variety of information has amply demonstrated, both East and West mainland, this killer has become increasingly rampant: Ultrafine particles, Nanjing decade has increased fivefold; ... [Details]The day before and 8 am and in the evening the dirtiest airEarly morning to late at night, usually near the ground is easy to form the inversion layer, the air in a stable state, easy to form the inversion layer, like a big pot, put dirty things "cover" on the inside, is not conducive to pollutant the diffusion. When coupled with the morning rush hour, cars emit large amounts of exhaust, so that the concentration of pollutants 8:00 at the highest.Around 8:00 in the morning and evening dirtiest air" "Experts believe that air pollution is an important factor in global weather conditions and climate change, atmospheric greenhouse gases, aerosols and cloud cover are causing climate change instigator. Dust in the air which the greatest impact on human health? Ultrafine particles, Nanjing decade has increased fivefoldIn the air we breathe, there is a very important component of the aerosol. What is the aerosol it? Briefly, is suspended in the air of fine particles. In daily life, the exhaust gas dust, fossil fuel burning material, and vehicle emissions from the site into the air, can form an aerosol. Aerosols are an indispensable part of the atmosphere, which is an important component to make rain clouds, but also reflection and scattering of sunlight, temperature regulation. However, when the aerosol concentration is high enough, after being sucked into the body, it will pose a threat to human health.Expert Nanjing University of Information Engineering, showed that the greatest impact of aerosol particles on the human body, in fact, 0.4 to 5 micron particles, the naked eye can not see. Atmospheric Physics Institute school Dr. Jun Yang told reporters, the particle diameter of the particles greater than 5 microns susceptible to respiratory retaining part, will be excreted by the coughing, spitting, but the effect on the local mucosal irritation, can cause chronic rhinitis, throat inflammation.However, this "coarse" particles are not harmful to the human body's largest, for example, particle size less than 2.5 microns referred to as "particles into the lung", its diameter is less than the thickness of a human hair 1/20. 50% of them will be deposited cause hardening of the lungs, causing a great threat to human health in the lungs. In Nanjing, the concentration of fine particles in diameter 0.1 to 2.5 microns, in one cubic centimeter to more than 3,000, the maximum accessible 1 cm3 30000, is the "mainstream" particulate matter in the air. These particles may be in the lung, comprising some of the harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other compounds, is a carcinogen.Above that these are still "big head", there are more "microscopic" particles. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science Professor Zhu Bin introduction, usually, we will particle size of less than 0.1 microns is called "ultrafine particles" or "nanoparticles." However, Nanjing University of Information Engineering experts study found that, in Nanjing, the concentration of ultrafine particles in the diameter of 0.01 to 0.1 micron is significantly increased.This means that most of the particles Nanjing is floating in the air can remain in the lungs, into the bloodstream. This is also an important reason for suffering asthma and chronic bronchitis old recurrent. Experts said that Nanjing air suspension aerosol particles, that is, people feel the "dust particles" in the decade, an increase of five times.What time of day dirtiest air? Around 8 o'clock in the morning and evening, before and afterSo, when Nanjing dirtiest air it? This expert Nanjing Information Engineering University, has done a study, around 8 o'clock in the morning and evening, before and after, the atmosphere of fine particulate matter suspended ranked first and second in the afternoon lowest concentration. Therefore, the elderly out and exercise, may wish to change to 15:00 In this regard, Dr. Yang Jun is explained, since early morning to late at night, usually near the ground is easy to form the inversion layer, the air in a stable state, easy to form the inversion layer, like a big pot, dirty things are "cover" on the inside, is not conducive to the spread of pollutants. When coupled with the morning rush hour, cars emit large amounts of exhaust, so that the concentration of pollutants 8:00 at the highest.Atmospheric instability during the day, pollutants in the air easily transported upward. To around 16 o'clock, the atmosphere tends to be stable, but work late peak appears, and then a large number of automobile exhaust emissions, but also makes the particles increased. (The aerosol concentration in the atmosphere increases year by year Yangtze River; ... [more]Aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere Yangtze River Delta region increased year by yearPublished by the Government to monitor air quality is clearly superior, the window but saw a haze of the sky; weather forecast of respirable particulate matter value is very low, the air is sucked into the people the feeling of cough ...... want to live in the Yangtze River Delta For many residents of metropolitan areas, the situation appears to Nanyilijie in life is not uncommon. Environmental protection, meteorological department of errors in the work it? Reporters learned from the meteorological monitoring department at the Yangtze River Delta region and the experts, this situation, the fact is that China's current lack of monitoring daily weather monitoring standards for fine particulate matter.Shanghai Meteorological Bureau in the past information released by the World Meteorological Day, atmospheric aerosol concentrations Yangtze River Delta region increased year by year, fine particle pollution areas area also has expanded each year. Correspondents from Jiangsu and Zhejiang meteorological department learned that, despite the impact of aerosols on climate is slowly expanding, but it has not yet been incorporated into the daily monitoring system. Deputy director of the Bureau of Meteorology Climate Center, Jiangsu Province, Lu Jun told reporters, aerosol as a new concept proposed in recent years, although the authorities have been gradually entering the areas of concern, but it's just stop monitoring in the research phase, not more talk inform the public on a daily basis. "The soAnd is now generally monitored inhalable particles Japan's Ministry of the Environment survey published in 2007 showed that if the air into the lungs of particulate matter per cubic meter increase in the concentration of 10 micrograms, then in the next 5 days, 65In addition to inhalation bigger impact on human health, since the smaller diameter, a greater number clustered in the same area as condensation nuclei and more condensed water vapor, so that the sky will show "Thunderstorm" visual effects. It is reported that in addition to the Yangtze River Delta, the situation is due to the increased amount of fine particulate matter affect the air quality, the same prevalence in the Pearl River Delta and other domestic industries in many more developed regions.Jiangda and told reporters that the PM2.5 standard, proposed by the United States in 1997, mainly to monitor more effectively with the industrialization and the emergence of increasingly developed, the old standard was ignored harmful fine particles. Currently in the United States, has established a daily monitoring on fine particulate matter and public notification system. But in China, it is still a blank basic monitoring, mainly because our country has yet to regulations requiring that agencies publish relevant monitoring data. In addition to the lack of government guidance and support, relatively complex monitoring requirements, but also to come to a standstill in many areas. "Guangzhou haze growing, has been extremely unsuitable for human habitation; The southeast coast of Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanwei, Shenzhen, Hong Kong is not immune, central and western regions of inland cities such as Lanzhou, Xi'an and other major cities, by the ultraGuangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang city haze increaseMarch 22 meteorological department in Guangzhou urban roads recorded the visibility of 6 km, does not meet the emission standards haze early warning signals. However, the air quality index as high as 114 grade is According to the person in charge of the Guangdong Provincial Environmental Protection Office statement, Guangzhou has been part of the air quality levels "unfit for human habitation," the.Guangzhou is one of China's mega The answer to this question occurred before that in cities around the world uninhabitable, the Chinese cities accounted for more than three quarters.In 2004, sources said, unfit for human living in about 20 cities in the United Nations published, 16 in China. Later, there has been news that the United Nations has never been the "unfit for human habitation cities" evaluation, only been the "most livable city" rating. However, the World Health Organization published in 1998 had been the world's ten most polluted cities, at that time, China was included in eight cities.In addition, the 2009 British "Economist" announced the "world livable city list", standings 140 cities, Asia and Africa without a city in the top 10. The combination of these circumstances, many Chinese cities uninhabitable approximately be tricky.Although whether the city has a variety of standard suitable for human habitation, but the environment is an indicator of a Xiangdangchongyao. Guangzhou is the reason why people think uninhabitable because of severe pollution. Moreover, this weather is not the pollution caused by dust storms, but caused by the haze (haze). The main pollutants from local Guangzhou, Guangzhou in 2009 were 14 times the typical haze pollution.Haze is the essence of ultrafine particle contamination, ultrafine particle mainly gaseous pollutants from industrial emissions, automobile exhaust, which spread into the air including the dust, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, organic particles such as hydrocarbons, through a forming a series of photochemical reactions of secondary pollutants, the atmosphere becomes cloudy, blurry vision, low visibility. The weather problems caused by such pollution, are not uncommon in major cities in China.Although so far no conclusive haze caused by the disease, but epidemiological causation speculate that the weather is one of the important factors associated Huxixitong disease caused by allergies. Moreover, the incidence of lung cancer but also with the phenomenon of haze have some relevance. Some researchers believe that after years of severe haze appear, separated by seven years there will be a high incidence of lung cancer.Haze is not the only "favored" Guangdong, southeast coast of Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanwei, Shenzhen, Hong Kong is not immune, central and western regions of inland cities such as Lanzhou, Xi'an and other major cities, such as Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai could not escape. Almost all Chinese provinces and autonomous regions to varying degrees, on and off the haze, the main reason is industrial and traffic pollution occurs.This once again raises the question of whether the rapid growth of Chinese economy will inevitably at the expense of people's health and life at the expense of, whether you must pay a high price unfit for human habitation? If the contamination can not be effectively controlled, the future of the Chinese people can live where?A status quo governance: PM2.5 air pollution monitoring blankThe PM2.5 standard was proposed by the US in 1997, mainly to monitor more effectively with the industrialization and the emergence of increasingly developed, the old standard was ignored harmful fine particles. Currently in the United States, has established a daily monitoring on fine particulate matter and public notification system. But in China, it is still a blank basic monitoring, mainly because our country has yet to regulations requiring that agencies publish relevant monitoring data. In addition to the lack of government guidance and support, relatively complex monitoring requirements, but also to come to a standstill in many areas. "I want this harm to human health" invisible killer 'borrow, and ultimately improve the atmospheric conditions of our country, the state must establish an effective monitoring of fine particulate matter standards and monitoring system as soon as possible. " Aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere Yangtze River Delta region increased year by yearPublished by the Government to monitor air quality is clearly superior, the window but saw a haze of the sky; weather forecast of respirable particulate matter value is very low, the air is sucked into the people the feeling of cough ...... want to live in the Yangtze River Delta For many residents of metropolitan areas, the situation appears to Nanyilijie in life is not uncommon. Environmental protection, meteorological department of errors in the work it? Reporters learned from the meteorological monitoring department at the Yangtze River Delta region and the experts, this situation, the fact is that China's current lack of monitoring daily weather monitoring standards for fine particulate matter.Shanghai Meteorological Bureau in the past information released by the World Meteorological Day, atmospheric aerosol concentrations Yangtze River Delta region increased year by year, fine particle pollution areas area also has expanded each year. Correspondents from Jiangsu and Zhejiang meteorological department learned that, despite the impact of aerosols on climate is slowly expanding, but it has not yet been incorporated into the daily monitoring system. Deputy director of the Bureau of Meteorology Climate Center, Jiangsu Province, Lu Jun told reporters, aerosol as a new concept proposed in recent years, although the authorities have been gradually entering the areas of concern, but it's just stop monitoring in the research phase, not more talk inform the public on a daily basis. "The soAnd is now generally monitored inhalable particles Japan's Ministry of the Environment survey published in 2007 showed that if the air into the lungs of particulate matter per cubic meter increase in the concentration of 10 micrograms, then in the next 5 days, 65In addition to inhalation bigger impact on human health, since the smaller diameter, a greater number clustered in the same area as condensation nuclei and more condensed water vapor, so that the sky will show "Thunderstorm" visual effects. It is reported that in addition to the Yangtze River Delta, the situation is due to the increased amount of fine particulate matter affect the air quality, the same prevalence in the Pearl River Delta and other domestic industries in many more developed regions.Jiangda and told reporters that the PM2.5 standard, proposed by the United States in 1997, mainly to monitor more effectively with the industrialization and the emergence of increasingly developed, the old standard was ignored harmful fine particles. Currently in the United States, has established a daily monitoring on fine particulate matter and public notification system. But in China, it is still a blank basic monitoring, mainly because our country has yet to regulations requiring that agencies publish relevant monitoring data. In addition to the lack of government guidance and support, relatively complex monitoring requirements, but also to come to a standstill in many areas. "Status Governance II: damage difficult to curb growth, environmental control difficultChina's economic "boom" in fact belong to undermine growth at the expense of environmental degradation. But after decades of predatory "development", China's ecosystem is already quite fragile. However, in the current economic situation the international competitiveness of the county, such as the performance Difangzhengfu to the main driving force of development mode, it is difficult to be fundamentally curbed, difficult environmental governance, ecological damage is still continuing, growing accumulation of air pollution.The real tragedy is that we have to ignore the "killer" We "strongUser joking: If you are right in the heart of PM2.5 concentration in the red zone, you want to breathe fresh air would have to leave their homes, thousands of miles across the. This is the center of Beijing, the concentration of PM2.5 and more serious, is that the more economically developed areas, north of Guangzhou The soThis is the metaphor of the times, our development, perhaps at the expense of the environment and citizens' right to health for the price. Moreover, this trend seems irreversible.Special note: Do not run in the morningAround 8 o'clock in the morning and evening exercise should not go out. " This expert Nanjing Information Engineering University, has done a study, around 8 o'clock in the morning and evening, before and after, the atmosphere of fine particulate matter suspended ranked first and second in the afternoon lowest concentration. Since early morning to late at night, the atmosphere is in a stable state, generally easy to form the inversion layer near the ground, like a big pot, put dirty things "cover" on the inside, is not conducive to the spread of pollutants. When coupled with the morning rush hour, cars emit large amounts of exhaust, so that the concentration of pollutants 8:00 at the highest. And the more people exercise, the more poison into the lungs, virtually become airborne toxic cleaners.Zhong Nanshan: haze cancer rates than nicotineAutomobile exhaust is one of the main formation of haze daysLONDON September 27 news: September 25, People's Daily published a "nightmare haze wrapped around the city," a text, focused on the Chinese city haze phenomenon, and included it in the atmosphere of a city's pollution species. The weather bureau defined, refers to a large number of very fine haze of the dry dust particles and the like floating in the air uniformly, so that visibility is less than the level of the common air 10.0km clouding. Yesterday, the reporter interviewed the Nanjing weather experts and respiratory medicine specialists, experts pointed out that the haze contains a lot of harmful substances, not only will stay in people's lungs, but also into the bloodstream. In a period of high incidence of haze days, morning exercise should be avoided, children and elderly patients with allergies and be extra attention.Most of Nanjing airborne particles can remain in the lungsIn daily life, the exhaust gas dust, fossil fuel burning material, and vehicle emissions from the site into the air, can form an aerosol. Studies of Nanjing University of Information Engineering experts have shown that human aerosol particles to the greatest impact, in fact, 0.4 to 5 micron particles, the naked eye can not see. Particle diameter greater than 5 microns susceptible respiratory retaining part, will be discharged from coughing, spitting vitro, but have a stimulating effect on the local mucosa, can cause chronic rhinitis, pharyngitis.However, this "coarse" particles are not harmful to human body, for example, particle size less than 2.5 microns referred to as "particles into the lung", its diameter is less than the thickness of a human hair 1/20. 50% of them will be deposited cause hardening of the lungs, causing a great threat to human health in the lungs. In Nanjing, the concentration of fine particles in diameter 0.1 to 2.5 microns, in one cubic centimeter to more than 3,000, the maximum accessible 1 cm3 30000, is the "mainstream" particulate matter in the air. These particles may be in the lung, comprising some of the harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other compounds, is a carcinogen.In addition, particle size less than 0.1 microns, referred to as "ultrafine particle" or "nanoparticles." Nanjing University of Information Engineering experts study found that, in Nanjing, the concentration of ultrafine particles in the diameter of 0.01 and 0.1 microns is significantly increased. This means that most of the particles Nanjing is floating in the air can remain in the lungs, into the bloodstream. This is also an important reason for suffering asthma and chronic bronchitis old recurrent.Haze caused by the incidence of lung cancer than nicotineZhong Nanshan, academician had warned publicly, haze caused by lung cancer in fierce nicotine! According to authoritative statistics, the number of smokers has not significantly increased, but lung cancer patients in the last 30 years actually increased by 45.6%, which is definitely a relationship with air pollution.According to the CDC survey last year in Nanjing Nanjing residents died, the mortality rate of lung cancer is still the highest number of cancer deaths. According to Jiangsu Provincial Tumor Hospital statistics show that last year more than 10,000 cases of lung cancer outpatients, an increase of 40%, is one of the most obvious increase in malignant tumors. Nanjing Chest Hospital this year, every month admitted to 80Nanjing Chest Hospital Respiratory chief physician Li Tian told reporters, ten years ago lung cancer patients can be said is relatively small, and now the high incidence of people imagine. The patients with lung cancer, there are three of the most significant changes: First, the past of lung cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, which has been shown to closely related to the nicotine in tobacco; but now squamous cell carcinoma and small cell cancer incidence decreased, while adenocarcinoma accounts more than half; Second, significantly increased the incidence of women, and most women without a history of smoking, mostly adenocarcinoma; Third, higher than the rural city in the past, and now rising incidence of lung cancer in rural areas. Experts point out that this series of changes can attest, worsening air pollution and increased lung cancer have a close relationship. Every year when the heavy fog, dust and dirt particles increased, major hospitals in Nanjing asthma, chronic bronchitis patients increased significantly old.Around 8 o'clock in the morning and evening exercise should not go out" This expert Nanjing Information Engineering University, has done a study, around 8 o'clock in the morning and evening, before and after, the atmosphere of fine particulate matter suspended ranked first and second in the afternoon lowest concentration. Since early morning to late at night, the atmosphere is in a stable state, generally easy to form the inversion layer near the ground, like a big pot, put dirty things "cover" on the inside, is not conducive to the spread of pollutants. When coupled with the morning rush hour, cars emit large amounts of exhaust, so that the concentration of pollutants 8:00 at the highest. And the more people exercise, the more poison into the lungs, virtually become airborne toxic cleaners.Autumn and winter in the eastern part of our country is haze If you travel, it is best to wear a mask, scarf. Weakened immune child should stay indoors as much as possible, to prevent suffering from respiratory diseases. This time should be less windows, because indoor air is cleaner than outdoor. Continued haze days also cause heart disease and lung disease symptoms worsened symptoms can also occur in healthy people, should come back after going out to clean the face and bare skin. Dandan ● Did you know? Nanjing is the third of the past five years the annual haze daysNanjing Environmental Monitoring Center station on the meteorological data from 1961 to 2006 found that Nanjing haze days overall upward trend, 45 years actually increased a hundredfold. "Nanjing visibility down 2.5 km in 40 yearsProfessor of Nanjing University School of Environment, told reporters, according to the annual variation in 40 years Nanjing sky visibility point of view, the haze days increases every year, Nanjing, visibility dropped 2.5 km. On the icon provided by experts correspondent saw, in 1965 "We can only do it again called for morning exercise less, haze avoid outdoor exercise, under the "killer" epidemic, self-seeking longevity. Conclusion: Breath of fresh air, is the Chinese people more and more distant dream?
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Forces turn words: 2013, 1/4 Land with ten volts haze is not accidental, has a long history. Our GDP from the people, the resources of mad grab. Deduction off resource depletion, land cancerous, Huanjingwuran, deteriorating health, personality sweeping, corruption everywhere, the people fall, morale, wealth transfer enormous cost, which would you choose "tremendous progress" "serious setback" These two phrases which one to describe it.