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How the Earth stops high-energy neutrinos in their tracks

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

For the first time, a science experiment has measured Earth's ability to absorb neutrinos -- the smaller-than-an-atom particles that zoom throughout space and through us by the trillions every second at nearly the speed of light. The experiment was achieved with the IceCube detector, an array of 5,160 basketball-sized sensors frozen deep within a cubic kilometer of very clear ice near the South Pole.

Surprising roles for muscle in tissue regeneration, study finds

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

Researchers have illuminated an important role for different subtypes of muscle cells in orchestrating the process of tissue regeneration. Notably, in the absence of these muscles, regeneration fails to proceed.

Lightning, with a chance of antimatter

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

Researchers find that lightning strikes causes photonuclear reactions in the atmosphere, creating antimatter.

New mechanisms found of cell death in neurodegenerative disorders

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 09:40 AM PST

New mechanisms of cell death have now been discovered, which may be involved in debilitating neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, report scientists.

How to cut your lawn for grasshoppers

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 08:30 AM PST

Picture a grasshopper landing randomly on a lawn of fixed area. If it then jumps a certain distance in a random direction, what shape should the lawn be to maximize the chance that the grasshopper stays on the lawn after jumping?

New method to measure neutron star size uses modeling based on thermonuclear explosions

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 08:30 AM PST

Neutron stars are made out of cold ultra-dense matter. How this matter behaves is one of the biggest mysteries in modern nuclear physics. Researchers developed a new method for measuring the radius of neutron stars which helps them to understand what happens to the matter inside the star under extreme pressure.

New composite material made of carbon nanotubes

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 08:30 AM PST

Due to their unique properties, carbon nanotubes would be ideal for numerous applications, but to date they cannot be combined adequately with other materials, or they lose their beneficial properties. Scientists have developed an alternative method of combining, so they retain their characteristic properties. As such, they 'felt' the thread-like tubes into a stable 3-D network.

Genetic factors linked to acquired narrowing of the airway

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 08:29 AM PST

Endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy are widely used in the hospital setting for elective surgery and in cases of serious illness or critical injury. In rare instances the procedures result in the development of scarring and narrowing of the larynx and trachea, or acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (ALTS). Who is susceptible to ALTS -- and why -- is unclear, but according to new research, genetic and ethnic background may be underlying factors.

Growing teeth and a backbone: Studies trace early origins of skeletal tissues

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 08:29 AM PST

Two new studies on the evolutionary origin of teeth and of vertebra further illuminate the human connection to marine organisms that goes back millions of years. Both studies were conducted in the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea).

Health service complaints system putting patients at risk, harming doctors' mental health

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 08:02 AM PST

Current process for complaints against doctors reduces their wellbeing and causes fear-driven working practices that could compromise patient care, suggests a new English study.

Cool lizards are better at learning socially

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 07:36 AM PST

Bearded dragons which are incubated in colder environments are better at solving cognitive tasks as adults than incubated in warmer temperatures, according to new research. Scientists tested the social learning abilities of bearded dragons which had been incubated in either an average of 30°C or 27°C and found that those from the colder incubation environment picked up new skills faster than their hotter counterparts.

Smart people have better connected brains

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 07:35 AM PST

Differences in intelligence have so far mostly been attributed to differences in specific brain regions. However, are smart people's brains also wired differently to those of less intelligent persons? A new study supports this assumption. In intelligent persons, certain brain regions are more strongly involved in the flow of information between brain regions, while other brain regions are less engaged.

Felling pines: Doing it sooner rather than later is better for fynbos

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 07:35 AM PST

Here's some advice for landowners wanting to remove pine trees in the hope of seeing fynbos plants on their properties again: do so before the trees have grown there for more than 30 years. The longer they wait, the less likely the chances that any fynbos seeds will be left in the soil to sprout successfully, according to researchers.

HLF-gene controls generation of our long-term immune system

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 07:35 AM PST

When the HLF (hepatic leukemia factor) gene -- which is expressed in immature blood cells -- does not shut down on time, we are unable to develop a functional long-term immune system, investigators have found. This could be a very early stage of leukemia, they say.

Common jellyfish is actually two species, scientists find

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:31 AM PST

Sea nettle jellyfish found in Rehoboth and Chesapeake Bay are actually two species, researchers have discovered.

To forget or to remember? Memory depends on subtle brain signals

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:31 AM PST

Understanding how brains actively erase memories may open new understanding of memory loss and aging, and open the possibility of new treatments for neurodegenerative disease.

Rainfall can indicate that mosquito-borne epidemics will occur weeks later

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:31 AM PST

Outbreaks of mosquito-borne viruses Zika and Chikungunya generally occur about three weeks after heavy rainfall, research shows. Researchers also found that Chikungunya will predominate over Zika when both circulate at the same time.

Preliminary stages of dementia reduce human face memorization ability

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:31 AM PST

Scientists have revealed that elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a particularly weakened ability to memorize human faces in the short term when compared to healthy elderly people. MCI patients also had a different gaze behavior when trying to memorize a face. This research may lead to the early detection of dementia.

MRI shows brain differences among ADHD patients

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:31 AM PST

Information from brain MRIs can help identify people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and distinguish among subtypes of the condition, according to a new study.

Worldwide increase in methane bubbles due to climate change

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:31 AM PST

Due to climate change, including rising temperatures, more and more methane is bubbling up from lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands throughout the world. The release of methane -- a potent greenhouse gas -- leads to a further increase in temperature, thus creating a positive feedback loop (also known as a 'vicious circle').

Species may appear deceptively resilient to climate change

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:30 AM PST

Natural habitats play a vital role in helping other plants and animals resist heat stresses ramping up with climate change -- at least until the species they depend on to form those habitats become imperiled.

Whole-brain map of electrical connections key to forming memories constructed by researchers

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:30 AM PST

A team of neuroscientists has constructed the first whole-brain map of electrical connectivity in the brain based on data from nearly 300 neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted directly on the brain. The researchers found that low-frequency rhythms of brain activity, when brain waves move up and down slowly, primarily drive communication between the frontal, temporal and medial temporal lobes, key brain regions that engage during memory processing.

Antibiotics resistance: Researchers succeed to block genes of resistance

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:30 AM PST

Scientists have design better molecules that make it harder for plasmids to move between bacteria.

Brains of children with a better physical fitness possess a greater volume of gray matter

Posted: 22 Nov 2017 06:30 AM PST

Physical fitness in children may affect their brain structure, which in turn may have an influence on their academic performance, new research indicates.

Schooling fish mainly react to one or two neighbors at a time

Posted: 21 Nov 2017 12:58 PM PST

Schooling fish constantly change who they decide to pay attention to and respond to one or two neighbors at a time, new research shows.

Video game improves balance in youth with autism

Posted: 21 Nov 2017 12:58 PM PST

Playing a video game that rewards participants for holding various "ninja" poses could help children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their balance, according to a recent study.

Biomechanical model could reduce wobbling of pedestrian bridges

Posted: 21 Nov 2017 12:58 PM PST

The dangerous wobbling of pedestrian bridges could be reduced by using biomechanically inspired models of pedestrian response to bridge motion and a mathematical formula to estimate the critical crowd size at which bridge wobbling begins, according to a study.