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Wednesday, November 29, 2017

#Science

#Science


How does chemotherapy among men affect the health of subsequent generations?

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 12:09 PM PST

How do cancer and cancer treatments affect the reproductive function of men? Can this affect the health of their direct descendants and subsequent generations?

Nature's blueprint for fracture-resistant cement

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 12:09 PM PST

Based on the nanostructure of the sea urchin spines, scientists develop fracture-resistant cement.

Sea-level rise predicted to threaten more than 13,000 archaeological sites in southeastern US

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 11:34 AM PST

Sea-level rise may impact vast numbers of archaeological and historic sites, cemeteries, and landscapes on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the southeastern United States, according to a new study.

Prehistoric women had stronger arms than today's elite rowing crews

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 11:33 AM PST

The first study to compare ancient and living female bones shows the routine manual labor of women during early agricultural eras was more grueling than the physical demands of rowing in Cambridge University's famously competitive boat clubs. Researchers say the findings suggest a 'hidden history' of women's work stretching across millennia.

Stem cell-derived intestine model mimics innate immune responses

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 11:33 AM PST

A stem cell-derived in vitro model displays key small intestine characteristics including innate immune responses, according to a new study.

With 'material robotics,' intelligent products won't even look like robots

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 11:33 AM PST

Robots as inconspicuous as they are ubiquitous represent the vision of researchers in the new and burgeoning field of material robotics.

Why are there no sea snakes in the Atlantic?

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 11:33 AM PST

There is a glaring gap in sea snakes' near-global distribution: the Atlantic Ocean. Biologists chalk up the absence of sea snakes in the Atlantic to geography, climate and timing.

Research could strip wine of sulfites — and health worries — for pennies per bottle

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:35 AM PST

A research drive is working toward the design and marketing of a low-cost, easy-to-use device that would filter up to 99 percent of sulfites from wine when it's poured from the bottle.

Wearable computing ring allows users to write words and numbers with thumb

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:35 AM PST

With the whirl of a thumb, researchers have created technology that allows people to trace letters and numbers on their fingers and see the figures appear on a nearby computer screen. The system is triggered by a thumb ring outfitted with a gyroscope and tiny microphone. As wearers strum their thumb across the fingers, the hardware detects the movement.

First-of-its-kind mummy study reveals clues to girl’s story

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:35 AM PST

Who is she, this little mummy girl? Scientists and students are working to unravel some of her mysteries, including how her body was prepared 1,900 years ago in Egypt, what items she may have been buried with, the quality of her bones and what material is present in her brain cavity. As part of a comprehensive scientific investigation, the mummy traveled from Evanston to Argonne National Laboratory on Nov. 27 for an all-day X-ray scattering experiment. It was the first study of its kind performed on a human mummy.

Single-molecule DNA sequencing advances could enable faster, more cost-effective genetic screening

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:35 AM PST

Researchers are developing new techniques for faster, more cost-effective single-molecule DNA sequencing that could have transformative impacts on genetic screening.

Lifespan prolonged by inhibiting common enzyme

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

The lifespans of flies and worms are prolonged by limiting the activity of an enzyme common to all animals, finds a new study. The enzyme -- RNA polymerase III (Pol III) -- is present in most cells across all animal species, including humans. While it is known to be essential for making proteins and for cell growth, its involvement in ageing was unexplored until now.

Quantum simulators wield control over more than 50 qubits, setting new record

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

Scientists have used more than 50 interacting atomic qubits to mimic magnetic quantum matter, blowing past the complexity of previous demonstrations.

Big data tool begins new era for biology and personalized medicine

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

Researchers have developed a novel series of systems genetics tools to identify new links between genes and phenotypes. The work brings biology to the cloud and sets the stage for the development of precision medicine.

Largest genetic study of mosquitoes reveals spread of insecticide resistance across Africa

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

The largest ever genetic study of mosquitoes reveals the movement of insecticide resistance between different regions of Africa and finds several rapidly evolving insecticide resistance genes. Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes and rising resistance to insecticides is hampering efforts to control the disease.

Big step forward for quantum computing

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

Researchers have developed a specialized quantum computer, known as a quantum simulator, which could be used to shed new light on a host of complex quantum processes, from the connection between quantum mechanics and material properties to investigating new phases of matter and solving complex real-world optimization problems.

Polar bear blogs reveal dangerous gap between climate-change facts and opinions

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

Climate-change discussions on social media are very influential. A new study shows that when it comes to iconic topics such as polar bears and retreating sea ice, climate blogs fall into two distinct camps. With little or no overlap between deniers and the available scientific facts.

Paired mutations: A new approach to discovering the shape of proteins

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

It is a bit like business partners: if one of the two parties changes strategy to keep the business going, the other has to adapt in turn. The leap from business ventures to the structure of proteins might seem a little bold. Yet, this concept of 'balanced changes' is precisely the guiding principle of a new study. The study represents a significant advancement in the fascinating problem of how the sequence, structure and function of proteins are tied together.

New interpretation of the Red Queen's Hypothesis: It's about expansion

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:14 AM PST

Evolutionary scientists have developed a new interpretation of one of the classic theories of evolutionary theory, the Red Queen's Hypothesis, proposed by Leigh Van Valen in 1973.

Robust Bain distortion in the premartensite phase of a platinum-substituted Ni2MnGa

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

The premartensite phase of shape memory and magnetic shape memory alloys is believed to be a precursor state of the martensite phase with preserved austenite phase symmetry. The thermodynamic stability of the premartensite phase and its relation to the martensitic phase is still an unresolved issue, even though it is critical to the understanding of the functional properties of magnetic shape memory alloys.

Scaling deep learning for science

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

Using the Titan supercomputer, a research team has developed an evolutionary algorithm capable of generating custom neural networks that match or exceed the performance of handcrafted artificial intelligence systems. The research team's algorithm, called MENNDL (Multinode Evolutionary Neural Networks for Deep Learning), is designed to evaluate, evolve, and optimize neural networks for unique datasets in a matter of hours.

Fast flowing heat in graphene heterostructures

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

Scientists have recently succeeded in observing and following, in real-time, the way in which heat transport occurs in van der Waals stacks, which consist of graphene encapsulated by the dielectric two-dimensional material hexagonal BN (hBN).

Injectable gel helps heart muscle regenerate after heart attack

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

Researchers have used mouse models to demonstrate a new approach to restart cardiomyocyte replication after a heart attack: an injectable gel that slowly releases short gene sequences known as microRNAs into the heart muscle.

Protecting pigs from PRRS during reproduction

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

New research is helping to eradicate a devastating swine disease.

Sorry, Grumpy Cat: Study finds dogs are brainier than cats

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 10:13 AM PST

The first study to actually count the number of cortical neurons in the brains of a number of carnivores, including cats and dogs, has found that dogs possess significantly more of them than cats.

Low vitamin D levels at birth linked to higher autism risk

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:03 AM PST

Low vitamin D levels at birth are associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) at the age of 3 years.

Universal signature fundamental to how glassy materials fail

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:03 AM PST

To find a link between seemingly disparate disordered materials and their behavior under stress, scientists studied an unprecedented range of disordered solids with constituent particles ranging from individual atoms to river rocks. Understanding materials failure on this fundamental level could be key for designing more shatter-resistant glasses or predicting geological phenomena like landslides.

Employee-job personality match linked with higher income

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

An employee whose personality traits closely match the traits that are ideal for her job is likely to earn more than an employee whose traits are less aligned, according to new research.

A transistor of graphene nanoribbons

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

Transistors based on carbon nanostructures: what sounds like a futuristic dream could be reality in just a few years' time. Scientists have now produced nanotransistors from graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide.

Parkfield segment of San Andreas fault may host occasional large earthquakes

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

Although magnitude 6 earthquakes occur about every 25 years along the Parkfield Segment of the San Andreas Fault, geophysical data suggest that the seismic slip induced by those magnitude 6 earthquakes alone does not match the long-term slip rates on this part of the San Andreas fault.

Wound healing or regeneration -- the environment decides?

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

For humans, the loss of limbs is almost always an irreversible catastrophe. Many animals, however, are not only able to heal wounds but even to replace whole body parts. Biologists have now been able to prove for the first time that comb jellyfish can switch between two completely different self-healing processes depending on the environmental conditions.

A model explains effects like the formation of clouds from the sea

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

All liquids always contain gases in a greater or lesser concentration, depending on the pressure and temperature to which it is subjected. Almost always, these gases end up as more or less small bubbles on the surface of the liquid. When these bubbles explode, especially if they are microscopic, minuscule drops are expelled at great velocity, and these drops almost instantly travel notable distances from the surface of the liquid that they came from.

Preventing psoriasis with vanillia extract

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

Small amounts of artificial vanilla extract, also known as vanillin, are in a wide range of products, from baked goods to perfumes. But vanillin's versatility doesn't stop there. In a recent mouse study researchers report that this compound could also prevent or reduce psoriatic skin inflammation.

Getting a better handle on methane emissions from livestock

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

Cattle, swine and poultry contribute a hefty portion to the average American's diet, but raising all this livestock comes at a cost to the environment: The industry produces a lot of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Just how much gas the animals release, however, is the subject of debate. Now, one group reports that a new approach could shed light on how accurate current data are.

To improve dipstick diagnostic and environmental tests, just add tape

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

Simple paper-strip testing has the potential to tell us quickly what's in water, and other liquid samples from food, the environment and bodies -- but current tests don't handle solid samples well. Now researchers have developed a way to make these low-cost devices more versatile and reliable for analyzing both liquid and solid samples using adhesive tape.

Innovative microscope poised to propel optogenetics studies

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

A newly developed microscope is providing scientists with a greatly enhanced tool to study how neurological disorders such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease affect neuron communication.

Thinner photodiode with higher stability and performance

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

A research team has increased the stability and performance of photodiodes using cubic perovskite nanocrystals. The result expected to be used for autonomous vehicles, military, space exploration and ubiquitous fields.

Jena Experiment: Loss of species destroys ecosystems

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

How serious is the loss of species globally? Are material cycles in an ecosystem with few species changed? In order to find this out, the 'Jena Experiment' was established in 2002, one of the largest biodiversity experiments worldwide. Ecologists now report on two unexpected findings of the long-term study: Biodiversity influences almost half the processes in the ecosystem, and intensive grassland management does not result in higher yields than high biodiversity.

Watching a quantum material lose its stripes

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 09:02 AM PST

In quantum materials, periodic stripe patterns can be formed by electrons coupled with lattice distortions. To capture the extremely fast dynamics of how such atomic-scale stripes melt and form, scientists used femtosecond-scale laser pulses at terahertz frequencies. Along the way, they found some unexpected behavior.

Lichen that changes its reproductive strategy according to the climate

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 08:00 AM PST

Symbiosis between fungi and microalgae gives rise to lichen. Some lichen, however, such as Lobaria scrobiculata, have a unique feature: the fungus establishes a symbiosis with a cyanobacteria, thus requiring water in liquid form to activate photosynthesis. According to a new study, this forces the lichen to concentrate its resources on reproduction in places where water is scarce. For the first time, this study demonstrates the theory of life strategies in fungi.

Nerve cell findings may aid understanding of movement disorders

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 08:00 AM PST

Fresh insights into the links between nerve and muscle cells could transform our understanding of the human nervous system and conditions relating to impaired movement.

Empowering workers can cause uncertainty and resentment

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 08:00 AM PST

Attempts by managers to empower staff by delegating different work to them or asking for their opinions can be detrimental for employee productivity, research shows.

Traces of life on nearest exoplanets may be hidden in equatorial trap

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

New simulations show that the search for life on other planets may well be more difficult than previously assumed. The study indicates that unusual air flow patterns could hide atmospheric components from telescopic observations, with direct consequences for formulating the optimal strategy for searching for (oxygen-producing) life such as bacteria or plants on exoplanets.

Eye contact with your baby helps synchronize your brainwaves

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

Making eye contact with an infant makes adults' and babies' brainwaves 'get in sync' with each other -- which is likely to support communication and learning.

Neurotoxin discovered in Lake Winnipeg

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

BMAA -- a toxin linked to several neurodegenerative diseases -- is present in high concentrations during cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Winnipeg, report scienitsts.

New synthethic protocol to form 3-D porous organic network

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

A team of researchers has presented a new synthetic protocol to produce three-dimensional porous organic materials in the blink of an eye, like firing bullets.

Soccer success is all about skill

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

A new study used analytic techniques developed in evolutionary biology to determine the impact of a player's skill, athletic ability, and balance on their success during a game.

Theory of the evolution of sexes tested with algae

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

The varied sex lives of a type of green algae have enabled a researcher to test a theory of why there are males and females.

New technique to model transplantation of the human liver

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

A novel technology enables the modeling of human liver transplantation in an experimental setting.

New insights into control of cellular scaffold

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 07:42 AM PST

Microtubule cytoskeleton is a major cellular scaffold that is required for dynamic organization of the cytoplasm, and the cytoskeleton plays a key role in a variety of cellular events, ranging from cell proliferation to morphogenesis. How the organization of microtubule cytoskeleton is controlled in our cells, however, has remained unclear.

Hip steroid injections associated with risky bone changes

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

Osteoarthritis patients who received a steroid injection in the hip had a significantly greater incidence of bone death and collapse compared with control groups, according to new research.

CT shows enlarged aortas in former pro football players

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

Former National Football League (NFL) players are more likely to have enlarged aortas, a condition that may put them at higher risk of aneurysms, according to a new study.

No evidence that gadolinium causes neurologic harm

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

There is no evidence that accumulation in the brain of the element gadolinium speeds cognitive decline, according to a new study.

Minimally invasive treatment provides relief from back pain

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

The majority of patients were pain free after receiving a new image-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment for low back pain and sciatica, according to a new study.

Lack of communication puts older adults at risk of clashes between their medicines

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

Most older Americans take multiple medicines every day. But a new poll suggests they don't get -- or seek -- enough help to make sure those medicines actually mix safely. That lack of communication could be putting older adults at risk of health problems from interactions between their drugs, and between their prescription drugs and other substances such as over-the-counter medicines, supplements, food and alcohol.

Time between world-changing volcanic super-eruptions less than previously thought

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

After analyzing a database of geological records dated within the last 100,000 years, a team of scientists has discovered the average time between so-called volcanic super-eruptions is actually much less than previously thought.

Invasive frogs give invasive birds a boost in Hawaii

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

Puerto Rican coqui frogs were accidentally introduced to Hawaii in the 1980s, and today there are as many as 91,000 frogs per hectare in some locations. What does that mean for native wildlife? Concerns that ravenous coquis could reduce the food available for the islands' native insect-eating birds, many of which are already declining, spurred researchers to examine the relationship between frog and bird populations -- but their results weren't what they expected.

New method maps chemicals in the skin

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

A new method of examining the skin can reduce the number of animal experiments while providing new opportunities to develop pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Chemical imaging allows all layers of the skin to be seen and the presence of virtually any substance in any part of the skin to be measured with a very high degree of precision.

Broader gun restrictions lead to fewer intimate partner homicides

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

State laws that restrict gun ownership among domestic abusers and others with violent histories appear to significantly reduce intimate partner homicides, indicates a groundbreaking American study.

90 percent of senior drivers don't make vehicle adjustments that can improve safety

Posted: 29 Nov 2017 06:04 AM PST

More than 70 percent of senior drivers experience muscle and bone conditions that impact their driving. Inexpensive features like steering wheel covers help lessen the impact of these conditions, yet 90 percent of senior drivers do not make simple adjustments to their vehicle that can reduce crash risk. Crash prevention is critical since drivers 65+ are more than twice as likely as younger drivers to be killed when involved in a crash due to fragility.