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Don’t like going to the gym? It could be your personality

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:34 PM PST

The effectiveness of someone's exercise regime may depend on their individual personality type, with more creative people better suited to outdoor activities.

Housework gender differences may affect health in elderly men and women

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:05 PM PST

Elderly men across Europe and the US spend less time on housework than elderly women, according to a new study. Researchers found that elderly women on average spent almost five hours a day doing housework compared to only around three hours a day for elderly men.

Malaria parasite packs genetic material for trip from mosquitoes to humans

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:05 PM PST

The parasite that causes malaria has not one, but two, specialized proteins that protect its genetic material until the parasite takes up residence in a new host.

Astronomers to build space telescope to explore nearby stars

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:05 PM PST

A new mission will launch a small satellite telescope into space to study the environment in other solar systems around the Galaxy's most common type of star.

Enzyme shown to regulate inflammation and metabolism in fat tissue

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:04 PM PST

New research in mice and humans suggests that an enzyme called SNRK suppresses inflammation in obesity-related 'white fat' while increasing metabolism in heat-producing 'brown fat,' making SNRK an intriguing target in the battle against obesity.

A repeating fast radio burst from an extreme environment

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 02:14 PM PST

New detections of radio waves from a repeating fast radio burst have revealed an astonishingly potent magnetic field in the source's environment, indicating that it is situated near a massive black hole or within a nebula of unprecedented power.

Mexican migrant health access much lower after US border crossing

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 01:35 PM PST

Immigrants and migrants from Mexico had worse access to health care and insurance after they crossed the border into the US -- and it remained bad when they returned to Mexico again.

Heart-muscle patches made with human cells improve heart attack recovery

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 01:35 PM PST

Large, human cardiac-muscle patches created in the lab have been tested, for the first time, on large animals in a heart attack model. This clinically relevant approach showed that the patches significantly improved recovery from heart attack injury. The results are a step closer to the goal of treating human heart attacks by suturing cardiac-muscle patches over an area of dead heart muscle in order to reduce the pathology that often leads to heart failure.

Arsenic-tainted drinking water may increase diabetes risk

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 01:33 PM PST

A new study reports that chronic exposure to arsenic interferes with insulin secretion in the pancreas, which may increase the risk of diabetes.

Light activity measured with fitness tracker linked to lower mortality in older women

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 12:05 PM PST

Researchers created a study to learn more about how much exercise older adults are able to perform, and how that exercise affects their health. The research team studied 6,489 female participants aged 63 to 99 years old.

NASA's newly renamed Swift Mission spies a comet slowdown

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 12:04 PM PST

NASA's Swift spacecraft, now renamed the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory after the mission's late principal investigator, has detected the most dramatic change in a comet's rotation ever seen.

For a banded mongoose in northern Botswana, communicating with family can be deadly

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 12:04 PM PST

A novel tuberculosis pathogen, Mycobacterium mungi, closely related to human TB, infects and kills banded mongooses through a surprising route -- olfactory communication. Now, a detailed investigation provides a window into how this deadly disease moves between mongooses and within the mongoose host.

Robotic implants spur tissue regeneration inside the body

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 12:04 PM PST

An implanted, programmable medical robot can gradually lengthen tubular organs by applying traction forces -- stimulating tissue growth in stunted organs without interfering with organ function or causing apparent discomfort, report researchers.

Ingredients for life revealed in meteorites that fell to Earth

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 11:13 AM PST

A detailed study of blue salt crystals found in two meteorites that crashed to Earth -- which included X-ray experiments found that they contain both liquid water and a mix of complex organic compounds including hydrocarbons and amino acids.

In 'pond scum,' scientists find answers to one evolution's which-came-first cases

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 11:13 AM PST

A team of scientists report on new evidence that primitive moths and butterflies existed during the Jurassic period, approximately 50 million years earlier than the first flowering plants, shedding new light on one of the most confounding cases of co-evolution.

New stellar streams confirm 'melting pot' history of the galaxy

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 11:13 AM PST

Where do the stars in our Galaxy come from? All the stars we see in the night-time sky belong to our Milky Way galaxy, and while most stars were likely born here, in the Milky Way, many appear to have originated in other galaxies and migrated to our shores. Tell-tale evidence comes from streams of stars created when small galaxies interact with the Milky Way.

A close-up look at an uncommon underwater eruption

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 11:13 AM PST

A new article describes the first up-close investigation of the largest underwater volcanic eruption of the past century.

Adaptation now: River flood risks increase around the globe under future warming

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 11:13 AM PST

Rainfall changes caused by global warming will increase river flood risks across the globe. Already today, fluvial floods are among the most common and devastating natural disasters. Scientists have now calculated the required increase in flood protection until the 2040s worldwide, breaking it down to single regions and cities. They find that the need for adaptation is greatest in the US, parts of India and Africa, Indonesia, and in Central Europe including Germany. Inaction would expose many millions of people to severe flooding.

Dramatic decline in genetic diversity of Northwest salmon

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 11:13 AM PST

Columbia River Chinook salmon have lost as much as two-thirds of their genetic diversity, researchers have found. The researchers reached this conclusion after extracting DNA from scores of bone samples -- some harvested as many as 7,000 years ago -- and comparing them to the DNA of Chinook currently swimming in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The work is 'the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period.'

Ancient Phoenician DNA from Sardinia, Lebanon reflects settlement, integration, mobility

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 11:13 AM PST

Ancient DNA from the Phoenician remains found in Sardinia and Lebanon could provide insight into the extent of integration with settled communities and human movement during this time period, according to a new study. The researchers looked at mitochondrial genomes, which are maternally inherited, in a search for markers of Phoenician ancestry.

Tiny antibiotic beads fight infections after joint replacement

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:40 AM PST

More than 1 million people undergo total joint replacements each year, and nearly 10,000 will develop infections. To reduce this infection risk, an orthopedic surgeon created small antibiotic beads that are implanted with the new joint to slowly release medicine for several weeks.

Here’s how stress may be making you sick

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:29 AM PST

A researcher is providing new insight into how certain types of stress interact with immune cells and can regulate how these cells respond to allergens, ultimately causing physical symptoms and disease.

Body size of marine plankton, currents keys to dispersal in ocean

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:23 AM PST

A new international study found that the size of plankton, and the strength and direction of currents, are key to how they are dispersed in the ocean -- much more so than physical conditions including differences in temperature, salinity and nutrient availability.

Astronomers detect 'whirlpool' movement in earliest galaxies; swirling gases soon after Big Bang

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Astronomers have looked back to a time soon after the Big Bang, and have discovered swirling gas in some of the earliest galaxies to have formed in the universe. These 'newborns' -- observed as they appeared nearly 13 billion years ago -- spun like a whirlpool, similar to our own Milky Way. This is the first time that it has been possible to detect movement in galaxies at such an early point in the universe's history.

Interconnected benefits of urban agriculture

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Researchers have assessed the value of urban agriculture and quantified its benefits at global scale.

The ecological costs of war: Conflict a consistent killer of African megafauna

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Researchers report that war has been a consistent factor in the decades-long decline of Africa's large mammals. But the researchers also found that wildlife populations rarely collapsed to the point where recovery was impossible, meaning that even protected areas severely affected by conflict are promising candidates for conservation and rehabilitation efforts.

Scientists curb growth of cancer cells by blocking access to key nutrients

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Researchers have discovered how to curb the growth of cancer cells by blocking the cells' access to certain nutrients.

Multiresponsive nanosurfactant constructs tiny chemical factory

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Scientists have made a surfactant based on nanoparticle dimers, which is responsive to multiple stimuli. The nanosurfactant combines several characteristics of each 'active' molecular surfactant which allows a tremendous flexibility whereby liquid droplets can be manipulated.

Frogs reveal mechanism that determines viability of hybrids

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Why are some hybrids viable and others not? It is known that this depends on the father species and the mother species. New research in two related frog species shows the influence of mother and father species: one hybrid is viable, the other hybrid dies in early stages of development.

With these special bacteria, a broccoli a day can keep the cancer doctor away

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Researchers have engineered bacteria that specifically targets colorectal cancer cells and converts a substance in some vegetables into an anticancer agent. The system reduced the number of tumors by 75 percent and shrank the remaining tumors by threefold in a mouse model of colorectal cancer. Published in Nature Biomedical Engineering, the study suggests that the probiotics taken together with a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables could help prevent colorectal cancer and its recurrence.

Quantum Dot: Extremely bright and fast light emission

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 10:14 AM PST

A type of quantum dot that has been intensively studied in recent years can reproduce light in every color and is very bright. An international research team has now discovered why this is the case. The quantum dots could someday be used in light-emitting diodes.

A more complete Mediterranean diet may protect against aggressive prostate cancer

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 09:38 AM PST

Researchers determined that men who followed a Mediterranean diet, rich in fish, boiled potatoes, whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, and olive oil, and low consumption of juices had lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC) than those who followed other dietary patterns like Prudent or Western diets.

3-D printing creates super soft structures that replicate brain and lungs

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:30 AM PST

A new 3-D printing technique allows researchers to replicate biological structures, which could be used for tissue regeneration and replica organs.

Epileptic seizures and depression may share a common genetic cause, study suggests

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:30 AM PST

From the time of Hippocrates, physicians have suspected a link between epilepsy and depression. Now, for the first time, scientists have found evidence that seizures and mood disorders such as depression may share the same genetic cause in some people with epilepsy, which may lead to better screening and treatment to improve patients' quality of life.

Black hole breakthrough: New insight into mysterious jets

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:30 AM PST

Advanced simulations created with one of the world's most powerful supercomputers show the jets' streams gradually change direction in the sky, or precess, as a result of space-time being dragged into the rotation of the black hole.

New discovery may explain winter weight gain

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:30 AM PST

We may have a new reason, in addition to vitamin D generation, to bask in a little sunshine. A breakthrough has shown the fat cells that lie just beneath our skin shrink when exposed to the blue light emitted by the sun.

Biomarkers may help predict outcomes in gastric cancer patients who abuse alcohol

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:30 AM PST

Alcohol consumption has been identified as a modifiable risk factor for cancers such as gastric cancer. A new report sheds light on how specific proteins interact with alcohol, and how that interplay impacts survival and response to platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer who may or may not still be drinking.

Changing how we view chlorine in soil

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:30 AM PST

Researchers have studied how combinations of different environmental factors affect the chlorination of organic matter in soils. The results show that the supply of fresh organic compounds, which promote the growth of the microorganisms, increases chlorination. The discovery could mean that chlorine in ecosystems has a different significance than previously believed.

New oxide and semiconductor combination builds new device potential

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:29 AM PST

Researchers have now grown a 2DEG system on gallium arsenide, a semiconductor that's efficient in absorbing and emitting light. This development is promising for new electronic devices that interact with light, such as new kinds of transistors, superconducting switches and gas sensors.

Light-sensitive THC: Intoxicatingly light-sensitive

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 08:29 AM PST

Chemists have synthesized several variants of THC, the active ingredient in cannabis. Its structure can be altered with light, and the researchers have used this to create a new tool that can be used to more effectively study the body's own cannabinoid system.

Between the lines: Tree rings hold clues about a river's past

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:10 AM PST

By analyzing centuries-old tree rings, researchers are extracting data about monthly streamflow trends from periods long before the early 1900s when recorded observations began.

Fiber OLEDs, thinner than a hair

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:10 AM PST

Scientists have succeeded in fabricating highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) on an ultra-thin fiber. The team expects the technology, which produces high-efficiency, long-lasting OLEDs, can be widely utilized in wearable displays.

Artificial muscles power up with new gel-based robotics

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:10 AM PST

Scientists are one step closer to artificial muscles. Orthotics have come a long way, yet innovation lapsed when it came to compensating for muscle power -- until now. A collaborative research team has designed a wearable robot to support a person's hip joint while walking.

Strong support for ocean protection: Study

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:10 AM PST

People around the world strongly support ocean conservation measures, according to a new study of public perceptions of marine threats and protection.

Worldwide importance of honey bees for natural habitats captured in new report

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:10 AM PST

An unprecedented study integrating data from around the globe has shown that honey bees are the world's most important single species of pollinator in natural ecosystems and a key contributor to natural ecosystem functions. The report weaves together information from 80 plant-pollinator interaction networks. The results clearly identify the honey bee (Apis mellifera) as the single most frequent visitor to flowers of naturally occurring (non-crop) plants worldwide.

Giant extinct burrowing bat discovered in New Zealand

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:10 AM PST

The fossilized remains of a giant burrowing bat that lived in New Zealand millions of years ago have been found by a UNSW Sydney-led international team of scientists. Teeth and bones of the extinct bat -- which was about three times the size of an average bat today -- were recovered from 19 to 16-million-year-old sediments near the town of St Bathans in Central Otago on the South Island.

The origin of flower making genes

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:10 AM PST

A research team has revealed that the MADS-box genes control sperm motility and cell division and elongation of the stem of gametophores, using the moss Physcomitrella patens.

Earthquakes as a driver for the deep-ocean carbon cycle

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:09 AM PST

Geologists have used novel methods to analyze sediment deposits in the Japan Trench in order to gain new insights into the carbon cycle.

New tipping point prediction model offers insights to diminishing bee colonies

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 07:09 AM PST

A new method to predict tipping points -- the moment at which sudden change occurs in complex networked systems -- may offer insights that prevent colony collapse disorder (CCD), a phenomenon in which the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear, threatening the agricultural economy at a global level.

Common pain reliever use during pregnancy linked to language delay in girls

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 05:05 AM PST

In the first study of its kind, researchers have found an elevated rate of language delay in girls at 30 months old born to mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy, but not in boys.

Engineered sandbars don't measure up for nesting plovers

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 05:05 AM PST

Dams reduce the creation of natural sandbars, which is bad news for birds that depend on them for nesting habitat. More than 200 hectares of engineered sandbars have been built along the Missouri River to address this problem -- but how does this compare to the real thing? A new study takes advantage of a natural experiment created by the region's 2011 floods, demonstrating that engineered habitat doesn't provide the benefits of sandbars created by nature.

New depth limit for deep-sea marine burrows

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 05:05 AM PST

Scientists have found fossil evidence of deep-sea marine life burrowing up to eight meters below the seabed -- four times the previously observed depth for modern deep-sea life.

Altered voice processing in young children with autism and delayed language development

Posted: 10 Jan 2018 05:05 AM PST

Three- to five-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and delayed language development appear to process voices differently than typically developing children, according to a new study.

Life on land and tropical overheating 250 million years ago

Posted: 09 Jan 2018 06:49 PM PST

One of the key effects of the end-Permian mass extinction, 252 million years ago, was rapid heating of tropical waters and atmospheres. How this affected life on land has been uncertain until now. New research shows how early reptiles were expelled from the tropics.

Sleeping for longer leads to a healthier diet

Posted: 09 Jan 2018 06:49 PM PST

Sleeping for longer each night is a simple lifestyle intervention that could help reduce intake of sugary foods and lead to a generally healthier diet, according to a new study.