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A Fossil Fuel Technology That Doesn't Pollute

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 10:30 AM PST

Newswise imageEngineers at The Ohio State University are developing technologies that have the potential to economically convert fossil fuels and biomass into useful products including electricity without emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

Study Reveals How the Midshipman Fish Sustains Its Hour-Long Mating Call

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 10:15 AM PST

Newswise imageResearchers at the University of Pennsylvania have discovered how the Pacific midshipman fish can hum continuously for up to an hour in order to attract potential mates. The study, which is featured on the cover of the January 2018 issue of the Journal of General Physiology, explains how the muscle fibers surrounding the fish's swimbladder can sustain the high rates of contraction--up to 100 times per second--that are needed to produce the animal's distinctive call.

New Drug Testing Approach a Game-Changer for Benzodiazepine Abuse

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 09:30 AM PST

A first-of-its-kind study published in the Pain Management issue of AACC's The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine shows that a new drug testing approach dramatically improves detection of illicit benzodiazepine use. This could help to curb abuse of these drugs, which are second only to opioids as a cause of prescription drug overdose deaths in the U.S.

The Harmful Effects of Processed Carbs Supported by a New Study Published in AACC's Journal Clinical Chemistry

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 09:30 AM PST

Innovative research published in the Obesity issue of AACC's journal, Clinical Chemistry, demonstrates that people are at greater risk for obesity if they produce higher than normal levels of insulin after eating processed carbohydrates. These findings support the still controversial theory that refined carbs are driving the obesity epidemic.

Drug Tests That Could Halt Runaway Increase in Opioid Overdoses Highlighted in January Issue of AACC's The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 09:30 AM PST

A special issue of AACC's The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine, "Laboratory Support of Pain Management," features groundbreaking new drug tests that could reverse the staggering climb of prescription drug overdoses in the U.S.

Research That Is Unraveling the Puzzle of Obesity Showcased in January Issue of AACC's Journal Clinical Chemistry

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 09:30 AM PST

Laboratory medicine experts are using genomics, metabolomics, and other cutting-edge clinical testing methods to advance the understanding of obesity. A special issue of AACC's journal Clinical Chemistry, "Obesity: Innovative Approaches to Overcome Obstacles," highlights the latest innovations in the field that could lead to more effective public health policies to curb this epidemic.

Sleep Your Way to a Better Year: SJU Biologist Offers Advice for Those Resolving for More Sleep

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 09:05 AM PST

Newswise image

Studying Crowd Behavior at MINERvA

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 09:05 AM PST

Newswise imageDetector measures the energy a neutrino imparts to protons and neutrons to help explain the nature of matter and the universe.

Society for Risk Analysis Inducts Five Individuals to the Pantheon of Risk Analysis

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 09:05 AM PST

The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) announced its 2017 inductees to the Pantheon of Risk Analysis at its Annual Meeting, Dec. 10-14, in Arlington, Virginia, USA. The Pantheon recognizes luminaries and visionaries in risk analysis and illustrates how risk analysis contributes to the advance of knowledge and public good.

Scientific Database arXiv Reaches Billionth Download Milestone

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:05 AM PST

The scientific pre-print database arXiv.org has surpassed 1 billion downloads. The online repository started 26 years ago as an electronic bulletin board on one computer, and has grown into an essential resource for physicists and mathematicians around the world.

Researchers Discover Higher Environmental Impact From Cookstove Emissions

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:05 AM PST

Newswise imageMillions of Asian families use cookstoves and often fuel them with cheap biofuels to prepare food. But the smoke emitted from these cookstoves has a definite, detrimental environmental impact, particularly in India. New research from Washington University in St. Louis offers a clearer picture of the topic's true scope.

Randomness a Key in Spread of Disease, Other 'Evil'

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:05 AM PST

Working with a simple mathematical model in which chance plays a key role, researchers Steve Strogatz and Bertrand Ottino-Loofler calculated how long it would take a bacterial infection or cancer cell to take over a network of healthy cells. The distribution of incubation times in most cases, they contend, is close to "lognormal" - meaning that the logarithms of the incubation periods, rather than the incubation periods themselves, are normally distributed.

Call for Entries: Awards for Science Writing

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:05 AM PST

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) is accepting submissions for the 2018 AIP Science Communication Awards. The deadline for entries is March 30, 2018.

Silver Nanoparticles Take Spectroscopy to New Dimension

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:00 AM PST

Newswise imageAs medicine and pharmacology investigate nanoscale processes, it has become increasingly important to identify and characterize different molecules. Raman spectroscopy, which leverages the scattering of laser light to identify molecules, has a limited capacity to detect molecules in diluted samples because of low signal yield, but researchers in India have improved molecular detection at low concentration levels by arranging silver nanoparticles on silicon nanowires. They describe their work in this week's Journal of Applied Physics.

Review Lays out Recommendations, Calls for Research to Improve Post-Hospitalization Sepsis Outcomes

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:00 AM PST

Half of sepsis survivors never fully recover; Dr. Derek Angus lays out an approach to change that.

An Organ-on-A-Chip Device That Models Heart Disease

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:00 AM PST

Newswise imageRecently, researchers have been studying diseases with a new approach: small, organ-on-a-chip devices that mimic the functions of human organs, serving as potentially cheaper and more effective tools. Now researchers have built a device that's especially good for modeling atherosclerosis. In this week's APL Bioengineering, researchers illustrate how the new device can be used to study important inflammatory responses in cells that line the vessel in ways that could not be done in animal models.

Locating the Precise Reaction Path: Methane Dissociation on Platinum

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 08:00 AM PST

Newswise imageSo far, the search for catalysts even better than transition metals has been largely based on trial and error, and on the assumption that catalyzed reactions take place on step edges and other atomic defect sites of the metal crystals. An international research team has combined experiments using advanced infrared techniques with quantum theory to explore methane dissociation reactions in minute detail. They report their findings this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics.

Surge in Alcohol-Related Emergency-Department Visits Needs a Different Approach

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 07:00 AM PST

While moderate drinking - up to one drink per day for women, two for men - can be part of a healthy lifestyle, excessive and chronic drinking can contribute to injury and disease. Each year, U.S. patients utilize emergency department (ED) services more than 130 million times, averaging nearly four visits per every 10 people. Alcohol-related injury and disease are commonly the cause of these visits. This study examined trends in ED visits that involved heavy and chronic drinking by age and gender between 2006 to 2014.

The Prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders in Puerto Rico is High

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 07:00 AM PST

Puerto Ricans make up the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, comprising 9.5% of the population (Mexicans are the largest group). Puerto Ricans living on the U.S. continent have some of the highest rates of drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) of any of the U.S. Hispanic national groups. This research investigated lifetime criteria and severity (mild, moderate, severe) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) AUD in Puerto Rico.

Tweaking Quantum Dots Powers-Up Double-Pane Solar Windows

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 06:05 AM PST

Newswise imageUsing two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. It's all made possible by a new window architecture which utilizes two different layers of low-cost quantum dots tuned to absorb different parts of the solar spectrum.

What Are the Benefits of Growing Multiple Types of Forage Grasses for Grazing Animals?

Posted: 02 Jan 2018 06:00 AM PST

Newswise imageGrazing animals, such as cattle and sheep, should eat their legumes and brassicas. The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) January 1 Soils Matter blog post explains how a variety of forage grasses benefits these animals as well as the soil and environment.