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The Rise of the Clinic: 1, family medicine

Posted: 10 Feb 2018 04:30 AM PST

The profession of medicine was formed from two quite separate trades: surgeons and physicians. Early versions of the oath of Hippocrates, the (physician) father of medicine, included an explicit undertaking that a doctor (physician) would not attempt surgical procedures such as the removal of stones from the bladder. That was a task best left to the surgeon, armed with his scalpel.

Physicians, whose treatments were largely ineffective and often endangered the patient, acquired royal patronage and high status; surgeons often practised other trades, usually being barber-surgeons, and their status was often relatively low, more of a craftsman than the confidant of kings.

rembrandtoperation
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606–1669), The Operation (The Sense of Touch) (1624-25), oil on panel, 21.6 × 17.7 cm, Private collection. Wikimedia Commons.

Rembrandt’s very early painting of The Operation from 1624-25 shows a barber-surgeon and his assistant performing surgery on the side of a man’s head. This is most likely to have been the lancing of a boil or removal of a tumour from the scalp or pinna of the ear. In the absence of any form of anaesthesia, this visibly resulted in considerable pain for the long-suffering patient.

hogarthmarriage3
William Hogarth (1697–1764), Marriage A-la-Mode: 3, The Inspection (c 1743), oil on canvas, 69.9 × 90.8 cm, The National Gallery, London. Courtesy of The National Gallery London, inventory NG115.

Hogarth’s The Inspection (from his series Marriage A-la-Mode of about 1743) takes us to the consulting room of a repulsive (physician) doctor, who appears to be treating his three patients for syphilis.

A crucial detail which may be hard to see in the image is of a link between three small boxes of black pills: the younger woman holds one box, which is closed; a second closed box is on the seat of the chair just in front of the man’s crotch; the third is open in the man’s right hand, outstretched towards the doctor. The pills are black, in common with the poxmarks which appear on the man and the older woman, indicating that they are the mercuric salts then used to treat syphilis.

A skull on the table at the left bears the unmistakeable erosions produced by advanced syphilis, and the doctor himself bears the hallmarks of congenital syphilis. All around the group are various worrying items of medical equipment and specimens. More worrying still, the older woman is caressing a cutthroat surgical blade.

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, advances in public health, hygiene, and science generally resulted in dramatic changes in medicine. The two separate trades gradually united, with common training, and by the end of the nineteenth century many treatments, using drugs and/or surgery, were starting to become effective. Physicians ceased being ‘quacks’, and surgeons ‘butchers’, and the unified profession built its reputation on science.

dagnanbouveretaccident
Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret (1852–1929), An Accident (1879), oil on canvas, 90.7 x 130.8 cm, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD. Wikimedia Commons.

Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret was travelling in the Franche-Comté region in the east of France, near the Swiss border, in company with a medical friend, when his friend was called to help someone who had been injured in an accident. The artist turned that into An Accident (1879), in which a country doctor is bandaging a boy’s hand following a similar event.

Although this doctor is clearly better-clothed than the patient’s family who surround him, he is working in their deprived environment, with a small bowl full of bloody water, and a filthy rag.

emmerydoctorsorders
Emmery Rondahl (1858-1914), The Doctor’s Orders (1882), oil on canvas, 43.2 x 55.9 cm, location not known. Wikimedia Commons.

Emmery Rondahl’s The Doctor’s Orders (1882) shows another country doctor who is writing a prescription, perhaps, for an older patient who is tucked up in a magnificent fitted bed in their own home. On the chair between them, in the centre of the painting, is a candle in a holder, a bottle of medicine, and a spoon.

The Doctor exhibited 1891 by Sir Luke Fildes 1843-1927
Sir Luke Fildes (1843–1927), The Doctor (1891), oil on canvas, 166.4 x 241.9 cm, The Tate Gallery (Presented by Sir Henry Tate 1894), London. Photographic Rights © Tate 2016, CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported), http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/fildes-the-doctor-n01522

In 1877, the painter Luke Fildes’ own infant son died, a tragedy which affected him deeply. He was later moved to paint The Doctor (1891) as a commission for Sir Henry Tate (who founded what is now the Tate Gallery), which shows a family physician staring in great concern at a sick child. In the background, the child’s fisherman father rests his left hand on the shoulder of the mother, as she sobs in despair on the table.

colliersentenceofdeath
John Collier (1850–1934), The Sentence of Death (1908), colour photogravure after oil on canvas original, original 132 x 162.5 cm, original in Wolverhampton Art Gallery, Wolverhampton, England. By courtesy of Wellcome Images, The Wellcome Library.

At the end of the nineteenth century, John Collier and others established a sub-genre of the ‘problem picture’, which contained a set of unresolved clues as to an underlying narrative. Designed to puzzle and encourage speculation, the newspapers of the day carried comment and correspondence arguing for particular readings of the latest problem picture.

Collier’s The Sentence of Death (1908) at first disappointed his critics, but quickly became very popular with the public; the original painting has not lasted well, and I show here a contemporary reproduction.

At a time when disease and death were prominent in everyday life, this painting might seem quite banal. A middle-aged man stares blankly at the viewer, having just been told by his doctor that he is dying. The doctor appears disengaged, and is reading from a book, looking only generally in the direction of his doomed patient.

Unusually for Collier’s problem pictures, and for paintings showing medical matters in general, the patient is male. This led to speculation as to the expected male response to such news, and questions as to what condition might be bringing about his death. There was even debate about interpretations of the doctor-patient relationship – an issue which I will examine in more detail in the second and concluding article tomorrow.

Hazel and SearchKeyLite bring order to your documents

Posted: 10 Feb 2018 12:00 AM PST

I’ve got thousands of Mac and iOS screenshots on my iMac, many going back fifteen years, and a few even older. I add to them at a rate of knots too, sometimes as many as a hundred in a month. The problem with screenshots is, of course, there is no useful metadata which you can use to search them, or to sort them into folders.

Having discovered that noodlesoft’s superb Hazel can perform actions on the basis of extended attribute (xattr) content, I have been experimenting with the combination of SearchKeyLite (with SearchKey) and Hazel to organise my screenshots for me.

The first, and most tedious, task is to add suitable metadata to each of the screenshots. I did this in two phases: I set some xattrs, such as the Creator and the start of the Keywords, for all the screenshots using SearchKey first.

hazelxattrs01

All I did was dump a copy of all the screenshots into a single folder, then used SearchKey’s batch feature to add the common xattr content, as shown.

hazelxattrs02

I then dragged and dropped batches of those files onto SearchKeyLite, and gave them informative text in each of the xattrs, particularly the Keywords. As I intend sorting them on the basis of Keyword content, that needs careful thought so that Hazel can retrieve the key text from each set of Keywords. For example, I don’t take as many screenshots in iOS, and want them to be tucked away in their own folder. So each iOS screenshot has the characters " iOS " inside its Keywords.

I then built my folder system ready to handle the task: one folder into which to put unsorted files for sorting, then a hierarchy of folders to contain the sorted screenshots, such as that for iOS.

I opened the Hazel pane in System Preferences, added the sorting folder to its list of folders at the left, and added the first rule to be applied to that folder.

To set xattr content as the attribute to be used in a condition, I opened the first popup menu containing Name, and scrolled to the bottom for the Other… item.

hazelxattrs03

This brings up a panel with a white background listing all the available extended attributes. In this case, I was after Keywords, as saved by SearchKeyLite.

hazelxattrs04

I then set up a search for matched text, in my case keywords such as iOS sandwiched between Anything.

hazelxattrs05

The final step is to set up the action on satisfying that condition: in my case, to move the file to one of my sorted folders.

hazelxattrs06

I ended up with four rules to sort my screenshots into four separate folders, according to the text contained within their Keywords xattr.

hazelxattrs07

This is easy to debug interactively, tweaking the rules in Hazel, and adjusting the Keywords xattrs for the files using SearchKeyLite. Once happy that it was working as intended, I threw the first hundred screenshots at the sorting folder, and let Hazel get on with organising them for me.

My screenshots are now tagged with metadata in their xattrs which lets me locate them using Spotlight search. They’re organised into folders, making it much easier for me to browse them when I’m looking for a previous image. And as I add more, provided that I spend a minute or two adding xattrs using SearchKeyLite, I have saved a lot of time when I need to come back to them.