Posted: 09 Feb 2018 04:30 AM PST
For nearly two centuries, painting and photography have co-existed, not always peacefully, though. We are used to seeing photographs of painters at work, and there are plenty of paintings of painters painting, but paintings of photography are more unusual. Perhaps the photographers were always in such a rush that they couldn’t wait for the painter to transform their canvas into an image.
But painters have long had an interest in optical devices, as shown in Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo’s delightful trompe l’oeil The Camera Obscura from 1764. I don’t find this at all surprising, nor that many famous painters have had, and used, cameras obscura. When much of your life is about images, any device which creates images is surely just the sort of technology which would fascinate.
The Polish artist Wojciech Gerson was one of the earliest painters to include a photographer in a painting, in his watercolour In the Tatra Mountains from 1860. This shows a team of surveyors and explorers at work in the Tatra Mountains, during the campaign in many European countries to produce high-quality maps, mainly for military purposes.
In Britain, for example, national mapping is performed by the Ordnance Survey, whose original purpose was to perform military surveys for the use of the artillery.
The camera in Frederick Daniel Hardy’s The Young Photographers (1862) is almost hidden beneath the bright red cloth covering it and the photographer. The message that photography was just child’s play may not have been what he intended, and wasn’t true at that time.
As photographic portraits became popular in the middle of the nineteenth century, and every town had its own photographic studio, painters seemed happy to paint them. Thomas Le Clear’s Interior with Portraits from about 1865 captures the atmosphere and props well. Once again, the photographer and his camera are almost hidden from view and Le Clear’s attention is focussed on the two children who are frozen in front of the lens.
Paintings of photography seem to have peaked around 1870, when the latter was still relatively novel and unusual, and not perceived as much of a threat to the painter.
Philipp Sporrer’s The Photo (1870) is probably the most pointed painted propaganda. The young photographer is not the sort of man you would leave your wife or daughter with: he is down at heel, unkempt, and his straw hat is abominably tatty. His studio is poorly-lit, probably an old shed, its floor littered with rubbish, and its window broken.
His subject is manifestly poor and uncouth, sitting in ill-fitting clothes and picking his nose as he waits for the photographer to fiddle around with his equipment.
Lajos Bruck’s The Photographer (1870) is perhaps fairer to the new medium, with a whole village and their innumerable children being cajoled into smiles ready for the camera. The itinerant photographer’s partner, though, seems disinterested, as she sits resting her head against her hand and looking away.
Then there are more neutral depictions, like Franz Schams’ Curious Guard most probably from around 1870. Once again, the photographer and his camera are largely concealed, as if photographers consisted only of buttocks and legs, and had no head.
Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret’s A Wedding at the Photographer’s (1879) seems more calculated. Hugely successful at the Salon, this artist saw no threat from wedding photography, a market in which there was no competition between painting and photography. But he still takes the opportunity to show the photographer and his studio as being tatty and tawdry.
Nicanor Blanes’ excellent plein air painting of Bella Vista (1889) is a fairer match.
The only painting that I have found which really matches the two media is Hermann Neuber’s The Photograph from about 1890. Here the photographer is taking a photo of the painter, who is painting the photographer … and a strategically-placed watering can looks as if it is poised to soak the photographer.
None of those paintings looks at the other, more technically-demanding side of photography: developing plates and printing. That is the subject of Louis Muraton’s The Photographer, which was painted before 1901. The subject is rocking a glass plate in a bath of developer, in his improvised darkroom.
The last image, though, speaks clearest: Joaquín Sorolla’s portrait of The Photographer Christian Franzen (1903). Franzen (1864-1923) was Danish by birth, trained in Copenhagen, then worked throughout Europe until he established his studio in Madrid in 1896. He was then appointed court photographer to King Alfonso XIII.
By then, photography had became an art in its own right, not the pale imitation depicted by Philipp Sporrer or Dagnan-Bouveret. But the top photographers still liked to have their portraits painted.
Posted: 08 Feb 2018 11:30 PM PST
There are many good reasons for wanting to keep watch on specific folders. Your workflow might generate images into a designated location which then have to be passed through another process. You might want to copy documents into a folder which then ensures that they are moved to an external archive, or synchronised with remote storage.
Some folders are of particular significance too: changes made to Library/LaunchAgents and LaunchDaemons folders can be early signs of malware taking up residence, for instance, and good anti-malware tools such as those from Objective-See, and Sqwarq’s DetectX can keep an eye out for you.
Watched folders can be invaluable when trying to diagnose or solve a problem too. If you aren’t sure which preferences file a particular setting is saved to, change that setting and watch which gets updated in ~/Library/Preferences. I have heard of users who see received email messages briefly before they vanish: it would be so helpful then to be able to watch the message arrive in their mailbox folder, and see what happens to it.
One simple approach to this might be to have a switch for each folder which you could turn on to send records of changes in that folder to your Mac’s log. Not only is there no such switch (as far as I know), but the unified log in Sierra and High Sierra is not a good place to record such information anyway.
The traditional tool built into macOS to handle many of these needs is the AppleScript Folder Action.
This is straightforward if you can express what you want to do with files in your watched folder in terms of an AppleScript. It is therefore most useful in workflows, and of least value in keeping a watch on changes in busy folders like ~/Library/Preferences, although an advanced scripter might still be able to make use of it.
Before you use Folder Actions, it is best to enable the AppleScript menu in Script Editor‘s preferences, under the General tab. This gives you easy access to scripts, including those used to enable and attach Folder Actions. A Script icon will then appear towards the right end of the menu bar, and its contents will change according to the frontmost app.
Bring the Finder to the front, and select the Enable Folder Actions item from the Folder Actions command in the Script menu, and a one-line script containing
Instead, in Sierra and later you should be able to select the Attach Script to Folder command, select the Folder Action script, then the folder to be watched. This should enable you to watch a folder for the addition of new items, for example, and either notify you in an alert, or perform a scripted action using an app.
As with much of AppleScript, Folder Actions are ageing, and increasingly feel as if they are rickety old parts of macOS which don’t work as well or as reliably as they did in the past. If you’re already comfortable with AppleScript and your task fits well with what you can achieve using it, Folder Actions can be valuable.
I wouldn’t recommend them for more demanding situations, such as monitoring large and busy folders, or for security purposes, and they’re not worth learning AppleScript for, any more.
This System Preferences pane by noodlesoft, costing $32, offers a wide range of folder actions which can be triggered by custom rules. It makes it consummately easy, for example, to watch many folders for added and changed files, to post notifications for some, and to record all the changes in its own traditional log file.
Its features also go far beyond simply watching folders. You can use it to sync folders, move or remove files on the basis of their age, automatically empty the Trash, and do a great deal more besides. Hazel has been going a long time – over ten years now – and is thoroughly mature and extremely well-supported.
I will be looking in more detail at some of the tasks you can accomplish using Hazel in future articles.
If you want a command tool to use in your own shell scripts, then look at Enrico Maria Crisostomo’s
It is also not entirely straighforward to use. The Mad Coder’s Blog, for example, recommends using a script such as
In the next article, I will look at macOS support for file and folder monitoring, and explain the three quite different mechanisms available: FSEvents, kqueue, and Grand Central Dispatch.
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