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Changing Stories: Ovid’s Metamorphoses on canvas, 80 – Romulus and Hersilia become gods

Posted: 26 Mar 2018 04:30 AM PDT

As Ovid reaches the end of Book 14 of his Metamorphoses, he has to sweep quickly through the early history of Rome. With King Proca dead, the storyline moves on to Romulus.

The Story

Ovid tells us that the walls of the city of Rome were founded on the feast day of Pales, 21 April, then mentions war with the Sabines led by Tatius, and the Vestal Virgin Tarpeia’s infamous betrayal of the citadel itself. The intruders entered through a gate unlocked by Juno, which Venus could not secure because gods are not allowed to undo what other gods have done.

Naiads living next to the shrine of Janus tried to block the intrusion by flooding their spring, but the torrent of water sent down to the open gate didn’t help. So they put sulphur under the spring, and turned it into a river of smoking, molten tar, which held the intruders back until Romulus was able to attack them. After a bloody battle, Romans and Sabines agreed peace, but their king Tatius died (in a riot at Lavinium) and Romulus therefore came to rule over both peoples.

The time came for Romulus to hand on the new Roman state to his successor; Mars therefore called a council of the gods, and proposed that the founder of Rome should be transformed into a god, which Jupiter approved:
The god all-powerful nodded his assent,
and he obscured the air with heavy clouds
and on a trembling world he sent below
harsh thunder and bright lightning. Mars at once
perceived it was a signal plainly given
for promised change — so, leaning on a spear,
he mounted boldly into his chariot,
and over bloodstained yoke and eager steeds
he swung and cracked the loud-resounding lash.
Descending through steep air, he halted on
the wooded summit of the Palatine
and there, while Ilia’s son was giving laws —
needing no pomp and circumstance of kings,
Mars caught him up. His mortal flesh dissolved
into thin air, as when a ball of lead
shot up from a broad sling melts all away
and soon is lost in heaven. A nobler shape
was given him, one more fitted to adorn
rich couches in high heaven, the shape divine
of Quirinus clad in the trabea.

(The trabea being the robe of state.)

With Romulus now the Roman god Quirinus, Hersilia, his queen, mourned his loss. Juno therefore instructed Iris to descend and invite Hersilia to join Romulus/Quirinus on Olympus:
Iris obeyed her will, and, gliding down
to earth along her tinted bow, conveyed
the message to Hersilia; who replied,
with modest look and hardly lifted eye,
“Goddess (although it is not in my power
to say your name, I am quite certain you
must be a goddess), lead me, O lead me
until you show to me the hallowed form
of my beloved husband. If the Fates
will but permit me once again to see
his features, I will say I have won heaven.”
At once Hersilia and the virgin child
of Thaumas, went together up the hill
of Romulus. Descending through thin air
there came a star, and then Hersilia
her tresses glowing fiery in the light,
rose with that star, as it returned through air.
And her the founder of the Roman state
received with dear, familiar hands. He changed
her old time form and with the form her name.
He called her Hora and let her become
a goddess, now the mate of Quirinus.

Ovid has now set the stage for the opening of the last book of his Metamorphoses, which concludes the history of Rome the city, state, and empire.

The Paintings

The most popular subjects from this phase of the legendary history of Rome are the early years of Romulus and his brother Remus, and the rape of the Sabine women – subjects which were controversial even in Ovid’s time, and carefully avoided. Fortunately the apotheoses of Romulus and the role of Hersilia have not been completely ignored in European painting.

davidinterventionsabinewomen
Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825), The Intervention of the Sabine Women (1799), oil on canvas, 385 x 522 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris. Wikimedia Commons.

Jacques-Louis David’s The Intervention of the Sabine Women (1799) is unusual among depictions of the episode of the Sabine women in showing its resolution, rather than the seizure of the women which brought the conflict about.

After the overwhelmingly male population of the nascent city of Rome had seized the wives and daughters of their neighbours the Sabines, the two groups of men proceeded to fight. David shows Roman and Sabine men joined in battle in front of the great walls of Rome, with the Sabine women and their children mixed in, trying to restore peace.

Looming over the city is the rugged Tarpeian Rock, from which traitors and other enemies of Rome were thrown. Named in dishonour of the treacherous Tarpeia, she wasn’t its first victim: she was crushed to death by the shields of the Sabines she had let into the citadel, and is reputed to have been buried in the rock.

Highlighted in her brilliant white robes in the foreground, and separating two of the warriors, is the daughter of the Sabine king Tatius, Hersilia, whom Romulus married. The warriors are, of course, her father and her husband, and the infants strategically placed by a nurse between the men are the children of Romulus.

David started this painting when he was imprisoned following his involvement in the French Revolution. He intended it to honour his estranged wife, who had continued to visit him during his incarceration, and to make the case for reconciliation as the resolution of conflict.

guercinohersiliaseparating
Guercino (1591–1666), Hersilia Separating Romulus and Tatius (1645), oil on canvas, 253 x 267 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris. Wikimedia Commons.

Guercino’s Hersilia Separating Romulus and Tatius (1645) concentrates on the three figures of Tatius, Hersilia, and Romulus, and tucks the rest of the battle away in the distance behind them.

nattierromulustakentoolympus
Jean-Baptiste Nattier (1678–1726), Romulus being taken up to Olympus by Mars (c 1700), oil on canvas, 99 × 96.5 cm, Muzeum Kolekcji im. Jana Pawła II, Warsaw, Poland. Wikimedia Commons.

Only Jean-Baptiste Nattier painted the apotheosis of the founder of Rome, in his Romulus being taken up to Olympus by Mars from about 1700. Mars is embracing Romulus, with the standard of Rome being borne at the lower left, and the divine chariot ready to take Romulus up to the upper right corner, where the rest of the gods await him.

So we move on to the fifteenth and final book of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, which completes the history of Rome up to the time of Augustus.

The English translation of Ovid above is taken from Ovid. Metamorphoses. Tr. Brookes More. Boston. Cornhill Publishing Co. 1922, at Perseus. I am very grateful to Perseus at Tufts for this.

Inside iCloud Drive: In the log in Sierra and High Sierra

Posted: 25 Mar 2018 11:30 PM PDT

A lot of Mac users are suffering problems with iCloud – some with syncing data such as Calendars, and many with getting files loaded into iCloud Drive and accessible from there. As we are supposed to treat anything iCloud as a Black Box which just works, when it doesn’t it’s very hard to know what to do. About the only suggestion in most cases is to disconnect and reconnect, which is usually as purposeful as clutching a good luck charm.

I’m starting to try to understand how iCloud works, starting with iCloud Drive, in Sierra and High Sierra. There seems to be almost no existing information about this – even Apple’s developer documentation is scant and vague. If you know any better, please join in with comments.

My starting point is what should be one of the simplest actions: copying a single file from local storage to a folder in iCloud Drive. My first lesson is that the unified log is a rich source of information, but it only becomes meaningful when the log’s privacy protection is turned off. Trying to make sense of the log when the normal privacy setting is in force is futile, as all the useful information is censored by <private>.

I initiated the copy in the Finder, Opt-dragging the file over from one Finder window to another, so the relevant section of log starts with a barrage of log entries from com.apple.CFPasteboard showing that action being handled. This then becomes a filecoordination claim, with a log entry of the form
com.apple.foundation.filecoordination claims Finder Foundation Write options: 0 -- URL: file:///Users/hoakley/Library/Mobile%20Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/backup1/SierraCopyToiCloud.text -- purposeID: com.apple.desktopservices.copyengine
or
com.apple.foundation.filecoordination claims DesktopServicesHelper Foundation Read options: 1 -- URL: file:///Users/hoakley/Documents/0newDownloads/SierraCopyToiCloud.text -- purposeID: com.apple.desktopservices.copyengine
which then initiates the copy.

The main actors involved in handling the iCloud operations are:

  • com.apple.clouddocs
  • com.apple.cloudkit
  • com.apple.mmcs
  • com.apple.duetactivityscheduler

and several supporting services, including cloudd. I look at these in turn before putting the whole process together. Although there are undoubtedly some differences between Sierra 10.12.6 and High Sierra 10.13.3, log entries are broadly very similar, and there don’t appear to be substantial differences in the actors or sequences involved. That surprised me.

I performed these tests in the UK (southern England), and my iCloud Drive storage was located as Amazon’s AWS servers for western Europe, apparently in Ireland.

com.apple.clouddocs

The main role of the CloudDocs subsystem appears to be to get attribute values for items in iCloud, and act as the information broker between iCloud and macOS (or iOS). Its log entries have the distinctive use of ┏ (U_250F) and ┗ (U+2517) to mark out matching iCloud calls, with their hex serial numbers, in exchanges like
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] ┏1b6e Consolation3[10745] (default) -[BRCXPCRegularIPCsClient getAttributeValues:forItemAtURL:reply:] /Users/hoakley/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/backup1
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] ┏1b70 com.apple.finder[380] (default) -[BRCXPCRegularIPCsClient getAttributeValues:forItemAtURL:reply:] /Users/hoakley/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/backup1
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] ┗1b6e
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] ┗1b70

You will also come across a link entry sometimes:
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] ┣44 starting fetch record changes operation for com.apple.CloudDocs from token <…>

CloudDocs makes copious entries handling queries, in groups such as
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] ┏1b9e com.apple.finder[380] (default) -[BRCXPCRegularIPCsClient getAttributeValues:forItemAtURL:reply:] /Users/hoakley/Library/Mobile Documents/com~apple~CloudDocs/backup1/201612-306geniusTips.txt
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] ┗1b9e
com.apple.clouddocs [INFO] com.apple.finder[380]: reply({
NSURLUbiquitousItemDownloadingStatusKey = NSURLUbiquitousItemDownloadingStatusCurrent;
NSURLUbiquitousItemIsDownloadingKey = 0;
NSURLUbiquitousItemIsUploadedKey = 1;
NSURLUbiquitousItemIsUploadingKey = 0;
"_NSURLUbiquitousItemDownloadRequestedKey" = 1;
}, (null))

com.apple.cloudkit

CloudKit is exposed to developers, where it provides interfaces for moving data between apps and iCloud containers. In this situation, it performs the transactions needed to carry out the file copy, including invoking MMCS. Although its steps appear similar in Sierra and High Sierra, its log entries are much clearer in High Sierra, and examples are shown below.

com.apple.mmcs

MMCS is a service which appears to act as a transfer engine, being driven by CloudKit to perform the data transfers required. A typical log sequence might start
com.apple.mmcs default Engine Status: was idle, going active
com.apple.mmcs default Chunking item (3777) 1 of 2
com.apple.mmcs default Chunking started for itemId 3777 with signature …
com.apple.mmcs default Chunking finished for itemId 3777 of 491 bytes in 0.0001 sec.
com.apple.mmcs default Chunking item (3778) 2 of 2
com.apple.mmcs default Chunking started for itemId 3778 with signature …
com.apple.mmcs default Chunking finished for itemId 3778 of 43 bytes in 0.0000 sec.
com.apple.mmcs default Server Receipt Received. itemId:…

and continue with further transfer actions.

com.apple.duetactivityscheduler

I was surprised to see the involvement of the macOS Duet Activity Scheduler (DAS) in these actions, in both Sierra and High Sierra. DAS is part of the activity scheduling and dispatching systems within macOS and iOS, but undocumented. In Sierra systems which are left running for long periods (typically over 5 days), it suffers a bug which causes it to collapse eventually, leading to a failure to perform automatic hourly Time Machine backups, for example.

DAS is here not paired with CTS (part of XPC) which normally performs the actions which it dispatches, which also appears strange. Instead, it seems to work directly with iCloud subsystems:
nsurlsessiond com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1> submitted to pool com.apple.cloudkit.BackgroundConnectionPool
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler client nsurlsessiond DuetActivityScheduler SUBMITTING: com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>
nsurlsessiond CFNetwork TIC [0x7f92f79454f0]: DAS scheduler submitted activity 0x7f92f5657b30
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler default DuetHeuristic-BM DuetActivitySchedulerDaemon Submitted Activity: <_DASActivity: "com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>", UserInitiated, 300s, [3/25/18, 9:21:11 AM - 3/25/18, 9:21:21 AM], Group: "com.apple.cloudkit.BackgroundConnectionPool", Networking: Upload=0, Size=5000, WiFi-Only=0, Dark-Wake Eligible, Related Apps: ( "com.apple.bird" ), User Specified: { }>
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler default DuetHeuristic-BM DuetActivitySchedulerDaemon Start network path monitoring for 'com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>'
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler scoring DuetHeuristic-BM DuetActivitySchedulerDaemon com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>:[
] sumScores:30.477778, denominator:34.700000, FinalDecision: Can Proceed FinalScore: 0.878322}
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler scoring DuetHeuristic-BM DuetActivitySchedulerDaemon 'com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>' DecisionToRun:1 (Bypasses Predictions)
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler lifecycle(activityGroup) DuetHeuristic-BM DuetActivitySchedulerDaemon With com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1> ...Tasks running in group com.apple.cloudkit.BackgroundConnectionPool are 3!
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler default DuetHeuristic-BM DuetActivitySchedulerDaemon Stop network path monitoring for 'com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>'
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler lifecycle DuetHeuristic-BM DuetActivitySchedulerDaemon Running activities : (
"com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>"
)
com.apple.duetactivityscheduler client nsurlsessiond DuetActivityScheduler STARTING: com.apple.CFNetwork-cc-400-552-Task <com.apple.cloudd>.<>.<1>

I suspect that DAS may be responsible for dispatching updating, and perhaps the transfer of bulk file data, between iCloud and macOS (and iOS).

cloudd

Another characteristic pattern seen in the log is the series of state transitions for cloudd/CloudKitDaemon. These occur in sequences, such as
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Starting operation
com.apple.cloudkit LogFacilityOP cloudd CloudKitDaemon Starting <CKDModifyRecordsOperation: …>
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation transitioning from state 1 (cancelled=0, stop=0, error=0)
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation is now in state 2
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation transitioning from state 2 (cancelled=0, stop=0, error=0)
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation is now in state 3
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation transitioning from state 3 (cancelled=0, stop=0, error=0)
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation is now in state 4
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation transitioning from state 4 (cancelled=0, stop=0, error=0)
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation is now in state 5
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation transitioning from state 5 (cancelled=0, stop=0, error=0)
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation is now in state 6
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation transitioning from state 6 (cancelled=0, stop=0, error=0)
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation is now in state 8
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation transitioning from state 8 (cancelled=0, stop=0, error=0)
cloudd CloudKitDaemon [Operation 0x7ffef0da7160] Operation is now in state 7

I have no idea what is happening here.

Putting it all together

The sequence of iCloud-derived log entries which occur when copying a file to iCloud Drive characteristically starts with a notice from com.apple.clouddocs, following which CloudKit starts an upload operation:
com.apple.clouddocs [NOTICE] uploading 1 documents in com.apple.CloudDocs
com.apple.cloudkit Starting operation <CKModifyRecordsOperation: 0x7fea5a7d88b0; operationID=F79247484F68DE18, qos=Utility, operationGroup={
operationGroupID = A8F5425E1D53FD3C;
"shortened-name" = Upload;
}, >

You will then see some of the sequences shown above, which progress the operation through until completion. That is marked by a sequence from CloudKit and CloudDocs:
com.apple.cloudkit Finished operation <CKModifyRecordsOperation: 0x7fea5a7d88b0; operationGroup={
operationGroupID = A8F5425E1D53FD3C;
"shortened-name" = Upload;
}, operationID=F79247484F68DE18, qos=Utility, stateFlags=executing, metrics=<CKOperationMetrics: 0x7fea5a7cd310; cloudKitMetrics=<CKMetric: 0x7fea5a7d7720; startDate=2018-03-25 13:07:05 +0000, duration=3.472, queueing=0.000, executing=6.930, bytesUploaded=913, bytesDownloaded=2864, connections=1, connectionsCreated=1>, MMCSMetrics=<CKMetric: 0x7fea5a75f700; startDate=2018-03-25 13:07:08 +0000, duration=0.000, queueing=0.000, executing=0.585, bytesUploaded=1836, bytesDownloaded=75, connections=2, connectionsCreated=2>>>
com.apple.clouddocs [NOTICE] finished uploading 1 items (534 bytes) in com.apple.CloudDocs

I hope that helps you follow what is going on in your log when you are experiencing problems with iCloud. I am now looking at how best to build this into a tool to help diagnose those problems.