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Dual frequency comb generated on a single chip using a single laser

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 11:48 AM PST

Engineers have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized silicon-based chip. This could lead to low-cost, portable sensing and spectroscopy in the field in real-time.

Scientists observe a new quantum particle with properties of ball lightning

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 11:48 AM PST

Scientists have created, for the first time a three-dimensional skyrmion in a quantum gas. The skyrmion was predicted theoretically over 40 years ago, but only now has it been observed experimentally.

Researchers find transferable antibiotic resistance gene in pathogen of developing nations

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 11:02 AM PST

A team of investigators has found that the mcr-1 drug resistance gene, which encodes resistance to a drug that is used as a last resort, has been found for the first time in Shigella flexneri. Shigella are one of the leading causes of diarrhea worldwide.

Enrichment program boosts STEM for black students but leaves Latinos behind

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 09:48 AM PST

In a new study that capitalizes on data from the National Center for Educational Statistics and methods that address causality, sociologists looked at an earlier portion of the pipeline -- in high school, when students' commitment to STEM fields tends to solidify.

How extremophiles flourish in stressful environments

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 09:48 AM PST

Thousands of molecules of ribonucleic acid make salt-loving microbes known as "extremophiles" highly resistant to the phenomenon oxidative stress -- the uncontrollable production of unstable forms of oxygen called "free radicals," which can negatively affect DNA, proteins, and lipids in cells.

Improving pediatric asthma care is possible

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 09:48 AM PST

A new study shows improved personalized inpatient assessments can enhance the accuracy of the prescribed asthma therapy a child receives. A physician's asking of the six key asthma control questions can help.

Backyard chickens need more regulation

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 09:48 AM PST

Historically, keeping backyard chickens was a response to economic hardship -- whether it was in the Depression or during wartime food rationing. But a growing number of chickens today are roaming or are caged on small family farms and in backyards, as suburban and urban poultry gains more popularity among consumers.

Mapping nanoscale chemical reactions inside batteries in 3-D

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 09:48 AM PST

Researchers have developed a new technique that lets them pinpoint the location of chemical reactions happening inside lithium-ion batteries in three dimensions at the nanoscale level.

Snowpack levels show dramatic decline in western states, U.S.

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 09:48 AM PST

A new study of long-term snow monitoring sites in the western United States found declines in snowpack at more than 90 percent of those sites -- and one-third of the declines were deemed significant.

Thawing permafrost causing the 'browning' of northern lakes

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 09:46 AM PST

As ice the melts, the organic carbon found in permafrost is being released once again after ages of confinement in the soil. It is making its way into Arctic and subarctic lakes and ponds, and modifying their composition.

The principle of electric wind in plasma

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 07:45 AM PST

Scientists have identified the basic principle of electric wind in plasma. This finding will contribute to developing technology in various applications of plasma, including fluid control technology.

Early psychosis programs significantly reduce patient mortality, study finds

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 07:45 AM PST

Researchers have found that specialized programs for early psychosis can substantially reduce patient mortality.

Unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 07:18 AM PST

A research team released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The dark matter distribution is estimated by the weak gravitational lensing technique. The team found indications that the number of dark matter halos could be inconsistent with what the simplest cosmological model suggests. This could be a new clue to understanding why the expansion of the universe is accelerating.

Tracking changes in fish communities

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 07:18 AM PST

In a study spanning twelve years, researchers have developed a method to calculate the fluctuating stability of a natural ecological community in Maizuru Bay.

Tiny bubbles of oxygen got trapped 1.6 billion years ago

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 07:18 AM PST

Take a good look at these photos: They show you 1.6 billion years old fossilized oxygen bubbles, created by tiny microbes in what was once a shallow sea somewhere on young Earth.

Mammalian development: Blastocyst architecture

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 07:17 AM PST

The mechanisms that underlie early embryonic development in humans and cattle are very similar. Therefore, researchers argue that bovine embryos might well be a better model for early human development than the mouse system.

Want more efficient simulators? Store time in a quantum superposition

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 07:17 AM PST

Computer models of systems such as a city's traffic flow or neural firing in the brain tends to use up a lot of memory. But a new approach with quantum simulators could significantly cut that memory use by taking a quantum approach to time, suggest researchers.

Children with marginally low birth weight needs treatment

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:14 AM PST

Children with a birth weight under 2.5 kilos stand at risk of becoming underweight and can experience cognitive difficulties as well as diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. However, early iron supplementation seems to provide some protection.

Nervous system puts the brakes on inflammation

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:10 AM PST

Cells in the nervous system can 'put the brakes' on the immune response to infections in the gut and lungs to prevent excessive inflammation, according to new research. This insight may one day lead to new ways to treat diseases caused by unchecked inflammation, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.

Discovery shows wine grapes gasping for breath

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:10 AM PST

Researchers have discovered how grapes 'breathe', and that shortage of oxygen leads to cell death in the grape.

Rethinking childbirth education could save AU $97 million p.a.

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:10 AM PST

Research shows antenatal education not only reduces the rates of medical interventions during childbirth, but can save the healthcare system up to AU$97 million per year.

Here's how viruses inactivate the immune system, causing cancer

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:10 AM PST

It's no new news that viruses cause cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) causes almost all of the more than 500,000 annual worldwide cases of cervical cancer. This makes sense: By driving the proliferation of infected cells, viruses speed manufacture of more viruses, but excessive cellular proliferation is also a hallmark of cancer. Now a new review explores another strategy that viruses use to ensure their own survival, also with the unfortunate byproduct of promoting cancer, namely the viral ability to manipulate the human immune system. This new understanding may help to increase the effectiveness of immune-based therapies against cancer.

Two species of ravens nevermore? New research finds evidence of 'speciation reversal'

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:10 AM PST

A new study almost 20 years in the making provides some of the strongest evidence yet of the 'speciation reversal' phenomenon -- where two distinct lineages hybridize and eventually merge into one -- in two lineages of common ravens.

Sedative may prevent delirium in the ICU

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:10 AM PST

A low dose of the sedative dexmedetomidine given at night may prevent delirium in critically ill patients, according to new research.

Payments to protect carbon stored in forests must increase to defend against rubber

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:10 AM PST

Efforts to protect tropical forests in Southeast Asia for the carbon they store may fail because protection payments are too low. A new study finds that schemes designed to protect tropical forests from clearance based on the carbon they store do not pay enough to compete financially with potential profits from rubber plantations. Without increased financial compensation for forest carbon credits, cutting forests down will remain more attractive than protecting them.

Previously unknown 'supercolony' of Adélie penguins discovered in Antarctica

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:09 AM PST

In a paper released on March 2nd in the journal Scientific Reports, the scientists announced the discovery of a previously unknown 'supercolony' of more than 1,500,000 Adélie Penguins in the Danger Islands, a chain of remote, rocky islands off of the Antarctic Peninsula's northern tip.

Fossilised plant leaf wax provides new tool for understanding ancient climates

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:09 AM PST

New research has outlined a new methodology for estimating ancient atmospheric water content based on fossil plant leaf waxes.

Spring is springing earlier in polar regions than across the rest of earth

Posted: 02 Mar 2018 06:09 AM PST

For every 10 degrees north from the equator you move, spring arrives about four days earlier than it did a decade ago, according to a new study. This is three times greater than what previous studies indicated. The authors connect such differences to more rapid warming at higher latitudes.

Eating fish may be tied to a reduced risk of MS

Posted: 01 Mar 2018 01:48 PM PST

Eating fish at least once a week or eating fish one to three times per month in addition to taking daily fish oil supplements may be associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a preliminary study.

Patients with head injuries do better when treated by trauma centers, even if it means bypassing other hospitals

Posted: 01 Mar 2018 01:48 PM PST

Patients who sustain severe head injuries tend to have better outcomes if they are taken to a designated trauma center, but 44 percent of them are first taken to hospitals without these specialized care capabilities, according to new research.

Potent anti-cancer drug effect in rare ovarian cancer

Posted: 01 Mar 2018 01:48 PM PST

An anti-cancer drug used to fight leukemia shows promise against a rare and aggressive type of ovarian cancer -- small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) -- which strikes young women and girls, according to a new study. Ponatinib was found in TGen-led drug screens and preclinical studies to significantly delay tumor growth and reduce tumor volume in SCCOHT.

Hormones may affect girls' interests, but not their gender identity or playmates

Posted: 01 Mar 2018 01:48 PM PST

Prenatal exposure to androgens is not associated with girls spending more or less time with other girls, but was associated with an increased interest in activities that have traditionally been thought of as masculine, according to researchers, who say it supports the idea that gender development is complex and does not solely rely on either biological or social factors.

No link between current or previous marijuana use and kidney disease, say researchers

Posted: 01 Mar 2018 09:50 AM PST

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, with an increasing trend of use among middle-aged and older individuals. However, potential health effects of marijuana use in the general population have not been extensively studied, and little is known about potential effects on kidney function. According to a new cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-59 in the US, there is no association between current or previous marijuana use and kidney function.