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Scientists discover first super salty subglacial lakes in Canadian Arctic

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 02:41 PM PDT

An analysis of radar data led scientists to an unexpected discovery of two lakes located beneath 550 to 750 meters of ice underneath the Devon Ice Cap, one of the largest ice caps in the Canadian Arctic. They are thought to be the first isolated hypersaline subglacial lakes in the world.

Babies make the link between emotions expressed vocally and facially

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 11:51 AM PDT

The ability of babies to differentiate emotional expressions appears to develop during their first six months. But do they really recognize emotion or do they only distinguish the physical characteristics of faces and voices? Researchers have just provided an initial answer to this question, measuring the ability of six-month-old babies to make a connection between a voice expressing happiness or anger and the emotional expression on a face.

Fossil study sheds light on ancient butterfly wing colors

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 11:51 AM PDT

Pioneering new research has given an illuminating new insight into the metallic, iridescent colors found on the earliest known ancestors of moths and butterflies, which inhabited the Earth almost 200 million years ago.

Scientists find excess mitochondrial iron, Huntington's disease link

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 11:51 AM PDT

New research identifying a pathway for Huntington's disease helps lay the foundation for developing drug therapies.

Life expectancy significantly worse in deprived areas

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 11:51 AM PDT

Life expectancy and health outcomes worsen the more deprived an area or population is, new research has found.

Student class engagement soars when they use personal data to learn

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 11:50 AM PDT

Life sciences professors have found that giving students access to their personal biological data has a profound impact on their learning experience. In a summary of their experiment, the researchers report students with access to data about their own microbiome -- the trillions of tiny microorganisms that live in a person's gut, mouth and skin -- are significantly more engaged and more interested in course material.

'Everything-repellent' coating could kidproof phones, homes

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 11:50 AM PDT

In an advance that could grime-proof phone screens, countertops, camera lenses and countless other everyday items, a materials science researcher has demonstrated a smooth, durable, clear coating that swiftly sheds water, oils, alcohols and, yes, peanut butter.

Brain combats dementia by shifting resources

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:17 AM PDT

The brain continues to put up a fight even as neurodegenerative diseases like dementia damage certain areas and functions. In fact, recent findings in a Baycrest-University of Arizona study suggest that one method the brain uses to counter these diseases is the reassigning of tasks to different regions.

Scientists discover a role for 'junk' DNA

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

Researchers have determined how satellite DNA, considered to be 'junk DNA,' plays a crucial role in holding the genome together.

An immunological memory in the brain

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

Inflammatory reactions can change the brain's immune cells in the long term -- meaning that these cells have an 'immunological memory.' This memory may influence the progression of neurological disorders that occur later in life, and is therefore a previously unknown factor that could influence the severity of these diseases.

Mutant ferrets offer clues to human brain size

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

Scientists have engineered ferrets genetically to study abnormally small brain size in humans -- and, in the process, discovered hints as to how our brains evolved.

New driver of extinction: Adaptations for sexual selection

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

By analyzing thousands of fossilized ancient crustaceans, a team of scientists found that devoting a lot of energy to the competition for mates may compromise species' resilience to change and increase their risk of extinction.

Atlantic Ocean circulation at weakest point in more than 1,500 years

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

New research provides evidence that a key cog in the global ocean circulation system hasn't been running at peak strength since the mid-1800s and is currently at its weakest point in the past 1,600 years. If the system continues to weaken, it could disrupt weather patterns from the United States and Europe to the African Sahel, and cause more rapid increase in sea level on the US East Coast.

Specific bacteria in the small intestine are crucial for fat absorption

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

A new study -- one of a few to concentrate on microbes in the upper gastrointestinal tract -- shows how the typical calorie-dense western diet can induce expansion of microbes that promote the digestion and absorption of high-fat foods. Over time, the steady presence of these microbes can lead to over-nutrition and obesity.

The neural circuitry of parental behavior

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

Scientists have deconstructed the brain circuits that control parenting behavior in mice, and identified discrete sets of cells that control actions, motivations, and hormonal changes involved in nurturing young animals.

New quantum method generates really random numbers

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a method for generating numbers guaranteed to be random, through the use of quantum mechanics. The experimental technique surpasses all previous methods for ensuring the unpredictability of its random numbers and may enhance security and trust in cryptographic systems.

Formation of supercontinents and strength of ocean tides

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 10:16 AM PDT

The cyclic strengthening and weakening of ocean tides over tens of millions of years is likely linked to another, longer cycle: the formation of Earth's supercontinents every 400 to 600 million years, according a new study.

Genetic screening tool identifies how the flu infiltrates cells

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a genetic screening tool that identified two key factors that allow the influenza virus to infect human lung cells. The technique uses new gene editing tools to create a library of modified cells, each missing a different gene, allowing scientists to see which changes impact their response to flu. This in turn could identify potential targets for antiviral drugs.

Even short international travel can spread colistin-resistant bacteria

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

The use of the antibiotic colistin, a last-resort treatment option in the infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria, is increasingly impeded by colistin-resistant bacteria. Researchers used biochemical and genetic assays to track resistant strains of bacteria in Japanese travelers returning from Vietnam. The researchers found short trips to a developing country can lead to the appearance of the colistin-resistance gene mcr-1. The study highlights that even brief international trips can contribute to the spread of colistin resistance.

Genetic variant might be a better marker for heart disease

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

Researchers have found that a newly identified subset of a known genetic variant found primarily in individuals of South Asian descent may be a better marker for carriers of heart dysfunction in this population and that individuals with this genetic variant are more likely to develop early signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Fascinating zoo of discs discovered around young stars

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

New images from the SPHERE instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope are revealing the dusty discs surrounding nearby young stars in greater detail than previously achieved. They show a bizarre variety of shapes, sizes and structures, including the likely effects of planets still in the process of forming.

Nasal mist vaccine suppresses peanut allergy in mice

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

A new research study reports that a vaccine delivered as an ultrafine nasal spray was found to limit or prevent peanut allergy symptoms in mice. This study is the first step in potentially developing a vaccine to treat food allergies in humans.

Surprising discovery: Sweet tooth gene connected with less body fat

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

Last year researchers discovered that a particular craving for sweet things may be determined by a genetic variation. Now the researchers have discovered that people with this genetic disposition for a sweet tooth have less body fat.

Having one eye better than the other may explain ants' left bias

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 06:04 AM PDT

Unlike Derek Zoolander, ants don't have any difficulty turning left. New research has now found rock ants often have one eye slightly better than the other, which could help explain why most of them prefer to turn left, given the choice.

The emotions we feel may shape what we see

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 06:04 AM PDT

Our emotional state in a given moment may influence what we see, according to new findings. In two experiments, researchers found that participants saw a neutral face as smiling more when it was paired with an unseen positive image.

New glaucoma treatment could ease symptoms while you sleep

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 06:04 AM PDT

Eye drops could one day treat glaucoma while you sleep -- helping to heal a condition that is one of the leading causes of blindness around the world.

Baby fish led astray by high CO2 in oceans

Posted: 11 Apr 2018 06:04 AM PDT

Baby fish will find it harder to reach secure shelters in future acidified oceans -- putting fish populations at risk, new research has concluded.

Hotter, longer, more frequent -- marine heatwaves on the rise

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 01:41 PM PDT

We know heatwaves over land have been increasing, but now new research reveals globally marine heatwaves have also been increasing in length, number and intensity over the past century. More intriguing still, this trend has accelerated markedly since 1982.

Cohesive neighborhoods, less spanking result in fewer child welfare visits

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 01:11 PM PDT

The child welfare system is more likely to intervene in households in 'less neighborly' neighborhoods and in which parents spank their kids.

Marriage reduces depression in couples earning less than $60,000 per year, study finds

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 10:28 AM PDT

People who are married and earning less than $60,000 per year in total household income have fewer symptoms of depression than comparable earning unmarried people, but for couples earning more, marriage doesn't show the same mental health benefits.

New era of precision antimatter studies

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 10:28 AM PDT

The ALPHA experiment at CERN has carried out the most precise and accurate measurement ever done on antimatter.

Tiny distortions in universe's oldest light reveal strands in cosmic web

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 10:27 AM PDT

Scientists have decoded faint distortions in the patterns of the universe's earliest light to map huge tubelike structures invisible to our eyes -- known as filaments -- that serve as superhighways for delivering matter to dense hubs such as galaxy clusters.

Brain activity of free-flying bats

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 08:21 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a way to study the brain of a bat as it flies, recording for the first time what happens as a roving animal focuses and refocuses its attention.

How intestinal bacteria can affect your blood sugar and lipid levels

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 07:09 AM PDT

Intestinal bacteria have attracted recent attention since they were discovered to influence various physiological functions and diseases in humans. Researchers analyzing the influence of changes in intestinal bacteria on sugar and lipid metabolism have found that secondary bile acids produced by intestinal bacteria can influence blood glucose and lipid concentrations as well as parts of their molecular mechanisms.

Higher risk of infectious disease with both high and low cholesterol

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 07:09 AM PDT

The so-called good cholesterol, HDL, is associated with infectious disease, new research shows.

How neurodegenerative diseases might occur

Posted: 10 Apr 2018 07:09 AM PDT