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Parents may help prep kids for healthier, less violent relationships

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 12:57 PM PDT

Warm, nurturing parents may pass along strategies for building and maintaining positive relationships to their kids, setting them up for healthier, less-violent romantic relationships as young adults, according to researchers. In a study, adolescents who reported a positive family climate and their parents using more effective parenting strategies tended to go on to have better relationship problem-solving skills and less-violent romantic relationships as young adults.

Drug effectiveness in reducing glucocorticoid-induced bone loss

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 11:47 AM PDT

About one in every 100 people in the world takes glucocorticoids long term to treat immune-mediated diseases. However, glucocorticoids, such as prednisone, have a side effect -- they induce glucocorticoid-induced bone loss, causing an estimated yearly bone fracture rate of 5 percent. An alternative treatment option to the standard treatment now appears promising, according to an international study. Researchers compared the monoclonal antibody denosumab against a standard bisphosphonate.

Catching mantle plumes by their magma tails

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 11:47 AM PDT

Simulations show how mantle plumes decelerate seismic waves and how plumes appear in seismic tomographic images of Earth's mantle. Mantle plume simulations could help guide future experiments and save cost of large-scale ocean-bottom seismometer deployments to image deep Earth.

Scientists calculate radiation dose in bone from victim of Hiroshima bombing

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 11:47 AM PDT

Researchers describe the first retrospective dosimetric study by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using human tissue from nuclear attack victims.

New technology for measuring brain blood flow with light

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 11:45 AM PDT

Biomedical engineers have developed a new technique for measuring blood flow in the human brain, which could be used in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury, for example. The new technique, based on conventional digital camera technology, could be significantly cheaper and more robust than prior methods.

A powerful laser breakthrough

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 08:32 AM PDT

A research team has developed a simple, effective technique to enhance the power output of single-mode lasers that are 'surface-emitting' (as opposed to those using an 'edge-emitting' configuration). Of the two types, the surface-emitting configuration for semiconductor lasers offers distinctive advantages in how the lasers could be miniaturized, packaged and tested for commercial production.

Why cereal crops are so drought-tolerant

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 08:32 AM PDT

Cereal is much more drought-tolerant than other plants. Researchers have now found out why that is so. Their insight could help breed crops that are more resistant to drought.

Researchers map the potential spread of yellow fever virus to cities around the world

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 08:32 AM PDT

The deadly yellow fever virus has the potential to spread into cities around the world where it previously hasn't been seen, according to a new study.

how bacteria communicate in groups to avoid antibiotics

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 08:32 AM PDT

Researchers have found that a bacterium that causes pneumonia, sepsis and other infections, communicates distress signals within a group of bacteria in response to certain antibiotics.

Artificial intelligence helps soldiers learn many times faster in combat

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:03 AM PDT

New technology allows US soldiers to learn 13 times faster than conventional methods and researchers said this may help save lives.

Seniors stick to fitness routines when they work out together

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:03 AM PDT

Older adults are more likely to stick with a group exercise program if they can do it with people their own age, a new study has found. Working out with peers of the same gender doesn't seem to make a difference, which suggests that age-targeting but not gender-targeting should be considered when developing exercise programming.

Vitamin B6 helps people recall their dreams

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:02 AM PDT

New research has found that taking vitamin B6 could help people to recall their dreams.

New catalyst turns ammonia into an innovative clean fuel

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:02 AM PDT

Ammonia (NH3) has attracted attention in recent years as a carbon-free fuel that does not emit carbon dioxide. For use as a fuel, it should have a lower combustion temperature and produce only nitrogen (N2) and water. Now, researchers have succeeded in developing a new catalyst that burns NH3 at a low temperature and produces N2. The results are expected to contribute to climate change countermeasures and increased renewable energy use.

Bright future for solar cell technology

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:02 AM PDT

New all-inorganic perovskite solar cells tackle three key challenges in solar cell technology: efficiency, stability, and cost.

Introduced species overlooked in biodiversity reporting

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:02 AM PDT

The reports on biodiversity are based on indicators that only take indigenous -- i.e. 'original' -- species into account for each region. Yet today modern environments are made up of indigenous and introduced species. The introductions are either deliberate or accidental. Although these introduced species play important roles, they are ignored by specialists, a fact that partly distorts the international nature reports. The study recommends that the contributions made by these species should be included.

Herpesvirus: Identifying virus structures that can be attacked by killer T cells

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:02 AM PDT

Human herpesvirus 6 infects most people all over the world. It is usually well controlled by the body, but it can cause diseases in immunocompromised individuals. Scientists have now identified virus structures that can be attacked by killer T cells -- a possible approach for new therapies.

New ray of hope for solar fuel

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:02 AM PDT

The quest to develop the 'Holy Grail' of affordable, viable and environmentally-friendly fuels using sunlight has taken an exciting new twist.

New way of producing intense radiation could offer less harmful alternative to x-rays

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 07:02 AM PDT

A new source of intense terahertz (THz) radiation, which could offer a less harmful alternative to x-rays and has strong potential for use in industry.

Taxing sweet snacks may bring greater health benefits than taxing sugar-sweetened drinks

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 05:52 AM PDT

A 10 percent tax on sweet snacks could lead to a similar reduction in consumer demand as taxing sugar-sweetened drinks.

Mouse study identifies new target for human accelerated aging syndrome

Posted: 27 Apr 2018 05:52 AM PDT

Scientists have identified a potential therapeutic target in the devastating genetic disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), which is characterized by premature aging.

The role of health in climate lawsuits

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 03:00 PM PDT

Researchers are at the forefront of analyzing how climate lawsuits shape the nation's response to climate change. A new analysis investigates the role of health concerns in climate litigation since 1990 and finds that although health is cited in a minority of cases, it may have critical potential for protecting communities from the effects of climate change and coal fired power plants.

Be wary of cosmetic surgeons' online reviews

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 03:00 PM PDT

Consumers consider online reviews important for choosing physicians, but they should be wary of using those ratings to choose plastic surgeons. The reviews tend to be polarized, and some are written by people whom consulted with the doctor but never had surgery, reports a new study.

Get a grip: What your hand strength says about your marriage prospects and mortality

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 02:58 PM PDT

Researchers found men with a stronger grip were more likely to be married than men with weaker grips. Grip strength was not a factor in the marital status of women. Grip strength is an established measure of health and has previously been linked to one's ability to cope independently and predicts the risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality.

Molecule may help tame virulent bacteria and prevent infection

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:16 AM PDT

Researchers show that an immune-system generated molecule called nitric oxide inhibits Staphylococcus aureus' transformation from a relatively benign, quiescent colonizing state to its virulent form.

Rugosity and concentricity: In urban planning, look to edges, not just the core

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:16 AM PDT

Planners should view high rugosity (highly non-concentric) urban areas as symptomatic of vigor in urban and agricultural markets. Greater planning efforts are required to coordinated the co-joined health of both agricultural and urban land-uses. Empirical analysis is supported by land-use policies from 30 case study counties.

Stellar thief is the surviving companion to a supernova

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:16 AM PDT

Hubble found the most compelling evidence that some supernovas originate in double-star systems.

Surveillance of livestock could detect rift valley fever disease before human transmission

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) has often been linked with El Niño rainfall. To curb future outbreaks of RVF, scientists have carried out enhanced syndromic surveillance of 22 high-risk RVF Kenyan counties to collect data on RVF-associated syndromes and risk factors in livestock from November 2015 through February 2016. Their research could provide the first step toward establishing a national syndromic surveillance system for livestock in Kenya.

New computational model enables personalized simulation of exercise's metabolic effects

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

A new mathematical model incorporates personalized details to simulate the metabolic effects of exercise. The model can be adapted to different individual characteristics, such as age and weight, as well as different types and intensities of exercise.

Molecular culprit behind virus-mediated chronic inflammation and cancers identified

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

Within cells infected by Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), the human protein CADM1 interacts with viral proteins to promote chronic inflammation, which plays a major role in the development of cancers caused by KSHV.

Metastatic cancer gorges on fructose in the liver

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

Biomedical engineers have demonstrated that metastatic cancer cells can reprogram their metabolism to thrive in new organs. Cells originating from colorectal cancer change their dietary habits to capitalize on the high levels of fructose often found in the liver. The finding offers both general and specific insights into new ways of fighting metastatic cancer.

Respect Indigenous ancestors: Scholars urge community engagement before research

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

A new article provides guidance for those intending to study ancient human remains in the Americas. The paper, written by Indigenous scholars and scientists and those who collaborate with Indigenous communities on studies of ancient DNA, offers a clear directive to others contemplating such research: First, do no harm.

CRISPR-based diagnostic SHERLOCK optimized for rapid use during viral outbreaks

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

Researchers report a new tool that engineers the CRISPR-based diagnostic SHERLOCK for rapid outbreak response. The platform can now be used to detect viruses directly in clinical samples such as blood or saliva, eliminating a processing step that previously required a lab and professionally trained personnel. The updates to SHERLOCK enable clinicians to quickly and cheaply diagnose patient samples and track epidemics with limited equipment.

Blood cancer precursor found in 9/11 firefighters

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

A new study reports that New York City firefighters exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center disaster site face an increased risk for developing myeloma precursor disease (MGUS), which can lead to the blood cancer multiple myeloma.

Cancer drug helps treat tuberculosis by restoring leaky blood vessels

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:15 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered that an FDA-approved drug designed to treat cancer helps fight tuberculosis in mouse models. The drug is an MMP inhibitor designed to increase the structural integrity of blood vessels in tumors so that other drugs can reach inside them. It performs the same function in the granulomas associated with tuberculosis so that antibiotics can reach the bacteria sheltering within.

RNA editing study shows potential for more effective precision cancer treatment

Posted: 26 Apr 2018 11:14 AM PDT

If there is one thing all cancers have in common, it is they have nothing in common. A new study has shed light on why proteins, the seedlings that serve as the incubator for many cancers, can vary from cancer to cancer and even patient to patient, a discovery that adds to a growing base of knowledge important for developing more effective precision therapies.