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How flu virus interacts with antibodies in the lungs

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 02:37 PM PDT

Scientists have discovered a new aspect of the flu virus and how it interacts with antibodies in the lungs. This research could lead to a new approach for developing vaccines to prevent the flu, as well as novel treatments for people who are already infected.

How to reprogram memory cells in the brain

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 02:37 PM PDT

Long-term memory of specific places is stored in the brain in so-called place cells. Neuroscientists have now 'reprogrammed' such place cells in free-roaming mice, by sending electrical impulses directly to individual neurons.

Germs with unusual antibiotic resistance widespread in U.S.

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 02:21 PM PDT

Health departments found more than 220 instances of germs with 'unusual' antibiotic resistance genes in the United States last year, according to a new report. Germs with unusual resistance include those that cannot be killed by all or most antibiotics, are uncommon in a geographic area or the U.S., or have specific genes that allow them to spread their resistance to other germs.

Three-month-old infants can learn abstract relations before language comprehension

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 02:14 PM PDT

Three-month-old babies cannot understand words and are just learning to roll over, yet they are already capable of learning abstract relations. In a new study, researchers show for the first time that 3-month-old infants can learn same and different relations.

Scientists merge statistics, biology to produce important new gene computational tool

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 02:14 PM PDT

Researchers have come up with a computational tool that increases the reliability of measuring how strongly genes are expressed in an individual cell.

Professor makes legal case for schools to challenge cyberbullies

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 12:50 PM PDT

Student bullying on the internet could be headed for a showdown with a 50-year-old U.S. Supreme Court case that granted expansive First Amendment rights to kids in public school. When it does, one expert is ready to make the case for challenging the offenders, arguing for new standards under which school officials can punish cyberbullying.

Cost of 2017 salmon fisheries closure

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 12:50 PM PDT

Last year's closure of the commercial ocean salmon troll fishery off the West Coast is estimated to have cost $5.8 million to $8.9 million in lost income for fishermen, with the loss of 200 to 330 jobs, according to a new model that determines the cost of fisheries closures based on the choices fishermen make.

High number of concussion-related symptoms in performing arts

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 12:50 PM PDT

A recent study shows a stunning number of participants not only experienced concussion-related symptoms and head impacts but also continued performing either without reporting the incident or without receiving the recommended care. These participants were not taking part in any sporting contest at the time, however. They are theater personnel.

Debt matters: Women use credit to bridge income gaps, while men are less cautious

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:44 AM PDT

A new study on attitudes about debt shows that men have greater tolerance for using debt to buy luxury items, while women are more accepting of debt used in appropriate ways, including to bridge income gaps.

New satellite method enables undersea estimates from space

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:44 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a statistical method to quantify six important ocean particles from satellite data.

Partner's finances impact well-being, even in young love

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:44 AM PDT

How a young adult's boyfriend or girlfriend manages money may have an impact on the young adult's overall well-being and life outcomes, according to a new study.

Apps to keep children safe online may be counterproductive

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:44 AM PDT

Mobile apps designed to help parents keep their children safe from online predators may actually be counterproductive, harming the trust between a parent and child and reducing the child's ability to respond to online threats, conclude two new studies.

Astro-ecology: Saving endangered animals with software for the stars

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

A collaboration between astrophysicists and ecologists is helping to monitor rare and endangered species and stop poaching. Astrophysical software and techniques are applied to thermal infrared imagery captured by drones to automatically detect and identify animals -- even at night, when most poaching activity occurs.

Preprints accelerated between Ebola and Zika epidemics

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

Preprints -- scientific manuscripts that are posted at a recognized online repository before peer review -- have the potential to speed up the reporting of scientific research in infectious disease outbreaks.

Genes can help predict children's risk of type 1 diabetes

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

A type 1 diabetes genetic score can identify infants at risk for pre-symptomatic type 1 diabetes and could be used to enroll children into type 1 diabetes prevention trials, according to a new study.

Protein derived from parasite has potential to alleviate debilitating disease

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

Medical researchers have turned the tables on Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic worm that freeloads in humans, by using a protein derived from the parasite as a therapeutic molecule to reduce bleeding and pain associated with chemotherapy-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

Double-drug strategy blocks escape route for most lung cancers

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

A one-two combo punch using two currently available drugs could be an effective treatment for the majority of lung cancers, a study shows.

Ancient sea worm eats, poops and leaves behind evidence of Cambrian biodiversity

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

Researchers have uncovered details of the Cambrian food web on an ocean floor that once played home to a scattering of bivalved arthropods, hyoliths and trilobites.

A letter we've seen millions of times, yet can't write

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

Despite seeing it millions of times in pretty much every picture book, every novel, every newspaper and every email message, people are essentially unaware of the more common version of the lowercase print letter 'g,' Johns Hopkins researchers have found.

Microbiome study suggests marine nematodes are not picky eaters

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:04 AM PDT

Researchers report that the likelihood that nematode worms have similar microbial profiles does not correlate with how closely they are related.

Considering an employee for an overseas assignment?

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:03 AM PDT

A new study shows that expatriates' personality characteristics have a lot to do with how well they adjust and whether they succeed and provide a return on a company's considerable investment in an individual.

Australian vine can boost soybean yield, study says

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:03 AM PDT

Growing in its native Australia, the unobtrusive perennial vine Glycine tomentella could easily be overlooked. But the distant relative of soybean contains genetic resources that can substantially increase soybean yield, according to a new study.

How to fight side effects of hormone therapy for prostate cancer

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:03 AM PDT

Men on hormone therapy for prostate cancer may benefit significantly from hitting the gym with fellow patients and choosing more veggies and fewer cheeseburgers, a new study suggests.

Anticipating the dangers of space

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:03 AM PDT

Astronauts and future space tourists face risks from radiation, which can cause illness and injure organs. Researchers used supercomputers to investigate the radiation exposure related to the Manned Orbital Laboratory mission, planned for the 1960s and 70s, during which a dangerous solar storm occurred. They also explored the historical limitations of radiation research and how such limitations could be addressed in future endeavors.

Inner ear provides clues to human dispersal

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 11:03 AM PDT

Slight differences can be found in the inner ear of different populations of modern humans. Paleoanthropologists have found that these differences can provide information about the global dispersal of humans from Africa.

How muscles regulate their oxygen consumption

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 09:40 AM PDT

A new study shows that an enzyme called FIH determines how muscles consume oxygen. Without the enzyme, the need for oxygen increases during physical exercise. The finding is of potential significance to elite athletes, who have been found to have higher levels of FIH in their muscles than others.

Seafloor erosion now occurring like coastal land loss

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 09:40 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered that the seafloor from the Mississippi River Delta to the Gulf of Mexico is eroding like the land loss that is occurring on the Louisiana coast.

New metasurface model shows potential to control acoustic wave reflection

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 09:00 AM PDT

Typically, when a soundwave strikes a surface, it reflects back at the same fundamental frequency with a different amplitude. A new model shows that when a sound wave hits a nonlinear elastic metasurface, the incident fundamental frequency does not bounce back. Instead, the metasurface converts that energy into the wave's second harmonic resonance. Developing this metasurface could help architects reduce noise from performance halls to cityscapes.

Surprise can be an agent of social change

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 09:00 AM PDT

Surprising someone -- whether it's by a joke or via a gasp-inducing plot twist -- can be a memorable experience, but a less heralded effect is that it can provide an avenue to influence people.

Resurgence of pertussis explained

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 09:00 AM PDT

A team of researchers has found that the resurgence of pertussis, more commonly known as whooping cough, in the US is a predictable consequence of incomplete coverage with a highly effective vaccine. This finding goes against pervasive theories on why we are seeing a steady increase in the disease even though the vaccine is given at an early age.

Connection of sea level and groundwater missing link in climate response

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 09:00 AM PDT

About 250 million years ago, when the Earth had no ice caps and the water around the equator was too hot for reptiles, sea level still rose and fell over time. Now, an international team of researchers has developed a way to track sea-level rise and fall and to tease out what caused the changes in the absence of ice sheets.

Monitor detects dangerously low white blood cell levels

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Researchers have now developed a portable device that could be used to monitor patients' white blood cell levels at home, without taking blood samples.

Spa therapy helps Japan's snow monkeys cope with the cold

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Japanese macaques, also known as snow monkeys, have been enjoying regular baths in the hot spring at Jigokudani in Japan for decades -- and have even become a popular tourist attraction. New findings indicate how behavioral flexibility can help counter cold-climate stress and have likely implications for reproduction and survival.

Dispatch from the field II: Students describe an elusive spider while stationed in Borneo

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Students taking part in a recent ecology field course in Borneo described the first male of an elusive species of orb-weaving spider known for its striking red and blue colors.

Answers to 100-year-old mystery point to potential breast cancer therapies

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:59 AM PDT

A team of researchers at has identified a long sought after connection between how cancer cells use the sugar glucose to generate energy -- the Warburg pathway -- and cancer growth.

Mifepristone may halt growth of intracranial tumor that causes hearing loss

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Researchers have shown that mifepristone, a drug currently FDA-approved for chemical abortion, prevents the growth of vestibular schwannoma (also known as acoustic neuroma) cells. This sometimes-lethal intracranial tumor typically causes hearing loss and tinnitus.

Attacking flu viruses from two sides

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:12 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a new way in which certain antibodies interact with the flu virus. This previously unknown form of interaction opens up new possibilities for developing better vaccines and more efficient medication to combat the flu.

Memory training needs to target specific difficulties to be effective, suggests study

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

A recent study suggests that training programs can help, but only if they are tailored towards an individual's specific memory difficulty, such as trouble remembering faces, voices or recent events.

River's evolution unfolds with fresh mix of dating techniques

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

Scientists have dated the fluvial terraces of the Lower Moulouya river in northeast Morocco. An unprecedented combination of dating methods has helped to construct a chronological framework to decipher environmental changes over the past 1.5 million years at a local and regional level.

400-year-old documents reveal evidence of Japanese opium production and winemaking

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

In 2016, researchers reported that a Kyusyu lord ordered his people to produce wine in the 17th century. Further research has revealed that he also ordered the production of opium. It is thought that wine was used as gifts and medicine, and opium for medicine. The documents reveal that while the Japanese government was considering a ban on Christianity, the Hosokawa family seems to have actively imported goods, such as wine, from Portugal.

Coral reefs protect coasts from severe storms

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

Coral reefs can naturally protect coasts from tropical cyclones by reducing the impact of large waves before they reach the shore, according to scientists. Tropical cyclones wreak havoc on coastal infrastructure, marine habitats and coastal populations across the world. However, experts say that for coastlines facing a direct cyclone impact, a fringing reef can protect the beach from extensive erosion.

Genome of deadly, drug-resistant pathogen analyzed

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

Infections by microbes like bacteria and fungi that don't respond to available antimicrobial treatments pose an increasingly dangerous public health threat around the world. In the United States alone, such infections kill 23,000 people annually. To better understand the molecular drivers behind resistance, researchers recently conducted a whole-genome analysis of an unusual bacterial strain cultured from a patient in the United States.

Ionizing radiation found to soften tumor cell microenvironment

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

Researchers aim to unlock how irradiation -- part of radiation therapy in cancer treatment -- might alter the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. The team demonstrated that ionizing radiation can reduce the stiffness of both the extracellular matrix of an extracted tumor and an isolated matrix of collagen fibers. The results pave the way for irradiation to be used to create matrices with tailored properties.

Losing your nest egg can kill you

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

A sudden loss of net worth in middle or older age is associated with a significantly higher risk of death, reports a new study. When people lose a big chunk of their total wealth during a two-year period, they are 50 percent more likely to die in the next 20 years. More than 25 percent of Americans had a wealth shock over the 20 years of the study. This is the first look at the long-term effects of a large financial loss.

Flare-responsive hydrogel developed to treat arthritis

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

Bioengineers and physicians team up to develop a better delivery system for getting anti-inflammatory therapies to the sites where they are needed most.

Meat protein is unhealthy, but protein from nuts and seeds is heart smart

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

A study has found that meat protein is associated with a sharp increased risk of heart disease while protein from nuts and seeds is beneficial for the human heart.

High levels of hazardous chemicals found in plastics collected from Lake Geneva

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:11 AM PDT

The first analysis of plastic litter from Lake Geneva finds toxic chemicals like cadmium, mercury and lead - - whose levels sometimes exceed the maximum permitted under EU law. The presence of chemicals that are now restricted or banned in plastic production reflects how old the plastic litter could be -- and indicates that like oceans, freshwater habitats are also affected by plastic pollution.

Cell discovery could help with research on genetic diseases

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

Biologists have discovered the first data on an organelle that is very important in human cells in an ancient organism distantly related to humans. The discovery will enable scientists to study the breadth and depth of cell biology. This has implications for research into autoimmune diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Scientists create 'Swiss army knife' for electron beams

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

Scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. The experimental device is driven by a Terahertz radiation source and can accelerate, compress, focus and analyze electron bunches in a beam. Its active structures measure just a few millimeters across.

Sulfur amino acid restriction could amount to new dietary approach to health

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

The longevity and health improvements seen in animals on sulfur amino acid-restricted diets could translate to people, according to researchers who recently conducted a review of published studies. More research is needed to confirm the benefits in people, the scientists said.

A tricky job assessing the vulnerability of agriculture

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

There's still a lot we don't know about the vulnerability of our agriculture to climate change.

Mantle minerals offer clues to deep Earth's composition

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

Scientists now have a clearer picture of the Earth's mantle.

Nanoparticle films for high-density data storage

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may provide materials that can holographically archive more than 1,000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film.

Real-time monitoring could reduce First Nations water advisories by one third

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

Researchers have found that drinking water advisories in First Nations communities caused by equipment malfunction, inadequate disinfection and high microbial counts could be reduced by introducing real-time monitoring systems.

Ancient paper art, kirigami, poised to improve smart clothing

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 08:10 AM PDT

Scientists describe how kirigami has inspired its efforts to build malleable electronic circuits. Their innovation -- creating tiny sheets of strong yet bendable electronic materials made of select polymers and nanowires -- could lead to improvements in smart clothing, electronic skin and other applications that require pliable circuitry.

In zebrafish, the cholera bacterium sets off a surprising flush

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 06:45 AM PDT

Researchers experimenting with live zebrafish witnessed a 200 percent increase in the strength of intestinal contractions soon after exposure to the cholera-causing bacterium Vibrio cholerae, leading to expulsion of native gut bacteria.

Human daily rhythms: Clocks vs light/dark cycle

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 06:00 AM PDT

A new study analyses daily primary activities of European laborers and the sources of social synchronization.

Oldest Neanderthal wooden tools found in Spain

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 06:00 AM PDT

Archaeological excavations in Northern Spain have revealed several episodes of Neanderthal occupations with preserved wooden remains. The excavation revealed two very well preserved wooden tools; one of them is a 15 cm long digging stick.

Long-term caffeine worsens anxiety symptoms and fear of the new associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 06:00 AM PDT

Scientists provide evidence that a long-term consumption of caffeine has negative effects for Alzheimer's disease, worsening the neuropsychiatric symptoms appearing in the majority of those affected by the disorder.

Deep inside Perseus A – A telescope larger than the Earth makes a sharp image of the formation of black hole jets in the core of a radio galaxy

Posted: 03 Apr 2018 06:00 AM PDT

Researchers have imaged newly forming jets of plasma from a massive black hole with unprecedented accuracy. Radio images made with a combination of telescopes in space and on the ground resolve the jet structure merely a couple of hundred black hole radii or 12 light days from its launching site.