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French bulldogs at risk of various health problems

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:00 PM PDT

French bulldogs, predicted soon to become the most popular dog breed in the UK, are vulnerable to a number of health conditions, according to a new study.

Engraved Crimean stone artifact may demonstrate Neanderthal symbolism

Posted: 02 May 2018 02:49 PM PDT

A flint flake from the Middle Paleolithic of Crimea was likely engraved symbolically by a skilled Neanderthal hand, according to a new study.

The DES saga: Death risk high for young women exposed in utero

Posted: 02 May 2018 02:49 PM PDT

A new reports on the risks of exposure during pregnancy to a supplement, diethylstilbestrol (DES), that is linked to a rare cancer. The study found that DES-exposed patients with clear-cell adenocarcinoma had 'increased mortality across their life span.' For women aged 10 to 34 with DES-related clear-cell adenocarcinoma, the risk of death was 27 times higher than for other US women in that age group.

An ironic health care twist for undocumented immigrants

Posted: 02 May 2018 02:49 PM PDT

A new analysis highlights an ironic development in the intertwined issues of immigration and health care - two areas where current and previous administrations differ greatly. Undocumented people in certain states may get more medical help while they are here, it finds, thanks to the current administration's effort to give states more flexibility with their health care spending. And in a reversal of the previous administration's stance, states may find it easier to get that permission.

Newly improved glass slide turns microscopes into thermometers

Posted: 02 May 2018 02:49 PM PDT

A new study describes how an updated version of the microscope slide can enable scientists to see tiny objects while also measuring their temperature. The advancement, made possible by a new transparent, has the potential to streamline and enhance scientific research worldwide, from clandestine government biology labs to high school chemistry classes. It may also have implications in computers, electronics and other industries.

Understanding fear of guilt key in better treating OCD

Posted: 02 May 2018 02:49 PM PDT

Advances in our understanding of the development and persistence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have the potential to improve treatment according to a new study.

Gap in financial literacy widens for couples the longer the relationship lasts, study suggests

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:34 PM PDT

As couples mature together, they often grow apart in their level of interest and skill in handling their finances. A disparity in financial literacy that may be small or even nonexistent at first can increase over time depending on how much responsibility one partner undertakes.

River dolphins are declining steeply in the Amazon basin

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:34 PM PDT

Populations of freshwater dolphins in the Amazon basin are in steep decline, dropping by half about every decade at current rates, according to a new study.

Research finds 'Achilles heel' for aggressive prostate cancer

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:34 PM PDT

Researchers have discovered a promising new line of attack against lethal, treatment-resistant prostate cancer. Analysis of hundreds of human prostate tumors revealed that the most aggressive cancers depend on a built-in cellular stress response to put a brake on their own hot-wired physiology. Experiments in mice and with human cells showed that blocking this stress response with an experimental drug causes treatment-resistant cancer cells to self-destruct while leaving normal cells unaffected.

Omega-3s made by many marine animals, including corals, worms and molluscs

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:33 PM PDT

A major discovery that could 'revolutionize' the understanding of omega-3 production in the ocean has been made by an international team of scientists.

Whooping cough more widespread than previously known

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:33 PM PDT

New research suggests that whooping cough cases in Ontario are nearly eight times the number actually reported, reinforcing the importance of up-to-date vaccinations to protect against illness and the spread of disease.

Toy-inspired experiment on behavior of quantum systems

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:33 PM PDT

By placing the most magnetic element of the periodic table into a quantum version of a popular desktop toy, scientists explore the emergence of quantum chaos and thermal equilibrium.

How small molecule halts spread of toxic protein associated with Alzheimer's progression

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:33 PM PDT

Researchers have reported a promising drug strategy that blocks tau transmission.

Protecting campus free speech, even when it challenges beliefs

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:32 PM PDT

Researchers say psychological science's extensive study of bias offers an important lens to view conflicts between free speech and hate speech.

Survival and restoration of China's native forests imperiled by proliferating tree plantations

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:32 PM PDT

China's reforestation efforts have led to an increase in tree cover by 32 percent but the increase mostly comes from people turning former croplands into tree plantations with only one type of tree, which is of little value to wildlife. Likewise, native forests actually decreased by 6 percent because people continued to clear native forests to make way for tree plantations.

The case for hope: Educating as if survival matters

Posted: 02 May 2018 12:29 PM PDT

The world is facing ever-more-dire warnings from scientists about the faltering health of the environment and the negative consequences for humans, habitats, and the creatures with whom we share the Earth. Still, a new article suggests there's reason for hope. It boils down to what we teach today's young people.

Weather forecast model predicts complex patterns of volcanic ash dispersal

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:22 AM PDT

New research has provided fresh insight into how huge volcanic ash plumes, which can critically disrupt aviation and cause major impact on the ground, are transported in the atmosphere.

How some liver cells switch identities to build missing plumbing

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:21 AM PDT

By studying a rare liver disease called Alagille syndrome, scientists discovered the mechanism behind a form of tissue regeneration that may someday reduce the need for organ transplants. Researchers report that when disease or injury causes a shortage in one type of liver cell, the organ can instruct another type of liver cell to change identities to provide replacement supplies. The findings one day may lead to a viable treatment for human disease.

Scientists find the first bird beak, right under their noses

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

Researchers have pieced together the three-dimensional skull of an iconic, toothed bird that represents a pivotal moment in the transition from dinosaurs to modern-day birds.

Parental support linked career success of children

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

A recent study finds that young people who get financial support from their parents have greater professional success, highlighting one way social inequality is transmitted from one generation to the next.

Scientists find fear, courage switches in brain

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

Researchers have identified two adjacent clusters of nerve cells in the brains of mice whose activation levels upon sighting a visual threat spell the difference between a timid response and a bold or even fierce one.

Cryo-EM structures of the nicotine receptor may lead to new therapies for addiction

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

Researchers have published atomic-scale blueprints of the most abundant class of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A structural understanding of the protein, found in neurons, could lead to new ways to treat nicotine addiction from smoking and vaping.

Pilot study validates artificial intelligence to help predict school violence

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

A pilot study indicates that artificial intelligence may be useful in predicting which students are at higher risk of perpetrating school violence. The researchers found that machine learning -- the science of getting computers to learn over time without human intervention -- is as accurate as a team of child and adolescent psychiatrists, including a forensic psychiatrist, in determining risk for school violence.

Improving 3-D printing of plastic parts

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

Robots that can build homes, marathoners' running shoes and NASA's upcoming spacecraft all have one thing in common: 3-D printed parts. But as enthusiasm for 3-D printing continues to grow and expand across markets, the objects printed by the process can have weaknesses. Now, one group reports that using a simple modification to the manufacture of the starting materials improves the toughness of these printable plastics.

Precise targeting technique could regulate gut bacteria, curtailing disease

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

Emerging evidence suggests that microbes in the digestive system have a big influence on human health and may play a role in the onset of disease throughout the body. Now, in a new study, scientists report that they have potentially found a way to use chemical compounds to target and inhibit the growth of specific microbes in the gut associated with diseases without causing harm to other beneficial organisms.

Why plants are so sensitive to gravity: The lowdown

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

Plants can detect the slightest angle of inclination. Yet the mechanism by which they sense gravity relies on microscopic grains. In theory, such a system should hardly allow for precise detection of inclination. Researchers have now explained this curious paradox: the grains are constantly being agitated within the plant cells!

Are emperor penguins eating enough?

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

For emperor penguins waddling around a warming Antarctic, diminishing sea ice means less fish to eat. How the diets of these tuxedoed birds will hold up in the face of climate change is a big question scientists are grappling with.

Hubble detects helium in the atmosphere of an exoplanet for the first time

Posted: 02 May 2018 10:18 AM PDT

Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have detected helium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet WASP-107b. This is the first time this element has been detected in the atmosphere of a planet outside the Solar System. The discovery demonstrates the ability to use infrared spectra to study exoplanet extended atmospheres.

Bats go quiet during fall mating season

Posted: 02 May 2018 09:00 AM PDT

Giving someone the 'silent treatment' during courtship might not be the best strategy for romance. But, new research shows hoary bats fly with little or no echolocation at all as a possible mating-related behavior.

Physicists find signs of a time crystal

Posted: 02 May 2018 09:00 AM PDT

Physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal -- a form of matter that 'ticks' when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse -- in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy.

Heart disease symptoms improved by blocking immune cell migration

Posted: 02 May 2018 09:00 AM PDT

New research suggests that the location of immune cells in the body determines whether they help or harm the development of heart disease. The study supports the view that the immune system directly impacts heart failure -- still the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States.

Global warming of 1.5°C or 2°C: The lower limit would reduce flood hazards

Posted: 02 May 2018 09:00 AM PDT

A research group has simulated the scenarios of limiting global warming to 2°C versus 1.5°C with global hydrological models. An important result: High flows and flood hazards will increase significantly over an average of 21 percent of global land area if the temperature rises by 2°C. But if the rise in global warming is limited to 1.5°C only 11 percent of global land area would be affected.

Weight loss surgery may cause significant skeletal health problems

Posted: 02 May 2018 09:00 AM PDT

A new review examines the negative impacts of weight loss surgery on bone health.

New research shows that children with autism are able to create imaginary friends

Posted: 02 May 2018 09:00 AM PDT

Playing with an imaginary companion (IC) helps children learn essential social skills such as empathy with other people. It is often believed that autistic youngsters are incapable of creating pretend play pals -- a further hindrance to their development of emotional understanding.

Viscosity of suspensions: It all comes down to roughness

Posted: 02 May 2018 09:00 AM PDT

Researchers have explained how the surface characteristics of microspheres affect rapid increases in the viscosity of suspensions, thus laying the groundwork for applications such as smoothly flowing cement.

Flaw found in water treatment method: Process may generate harmful chemicals

Posted: 02 May 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Some potentially toxic chemicals in water may be created, ironically, during the water treatment process itself.

Brick by brick: Assembly of the measles virus

Posted: 02 May 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, using state of the art cryo-electron tomography techniques. The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug strategies likely to work across multiple viruses of this type.

Climate change will boost global lake evaporation -- with 'extreme' consequences

Posted: 02 May 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Global lake evaporation will increase 16 percent by the end of the century, triggering, among other outcomes, stronger precipitation events, according to a new study. But the specific mechanisms that will drive that phenomenon are not quite what scientists expected.

Gut microbiome plays an important role in atherosclerosis

Posted: 02 May 2018 08:59 AM PDT

Researchers have shown a novel relationship between the intestinal microbiome and atherosclerosis, one of the major causes of heart attack and stroke. This was measured as the burden of plaque in the carotid arteries.

Novel reaction could spark alternate approach to ammonia production

Posted: 02 May 2018 08:57 AM PDT

The search for a more energy efficient and environmentally friendly method of ammonia production for fertilizer has led to the discovery of a new type of catalytic reaction.

New leads on treating dementia and Alzheimer's

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:41 AM PDT

A new research study provides an explanation for why clinical trials of drugs reducing proteins in the brain that were thought to cause dementia and Alzheimer's have failed. The study has opened the way for potential new treatments with existing drugs.

Researchers discover connection between circadian rhythm and aggression

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:41 AM PDT

A research team has discovered a circuit in the brains of mice connecting circadian rhythm to aggressive behavior. The discovery is particularly interesting to Alzheimer's patients who experience increased aggression at night. The researchers have developed special protein tools capable of turning off the cells in the brain causing the behavior.

Substance in Chinese medicine can cause cardiac arrhythmia

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

A medicinal plant frequently used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) -- Evodia rutaecarpa -- contains substances that can cause cardiac arrhythmia.

Having two jobs is great for employers, but family life suffers

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

People who hold two jobs demonstrate as much engagement and performance in the workplace as their colleagues who have one job. However, dual job holders are likely to sacrifice family and personal time as a result.

New species in the North Sea

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

Experts have confirmed the existence of a new cryptic amphipod species in the North Sea.

Energy recovery of urban waste

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

Researchers have proposed a system which is capable of converting waste in a more controlled manner, and, basically, in two stages: first, the solid is converted to gas in reducing conditions (that is, with the presence of little oxygen), and then the generated gas is burnt very efficiently in specifically optimized equipment.

'Hairdryer wind' melts snow in Antarctica in winter as well

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

Even though the sun does not shine in Antarctica in winter, in some places snow on the glaciers can melt. The cause: warm wind. Utrecht glacier researchers discovered that fact by combining the results of weather stations and satellite images.

Organic printing inks may restore sight to blind people

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

A simple retinal prosthesis is under development. Fabricated using cheap and widely-available organic pigments used in printing inks and cosmetics, it consists of tiny pixels like a digital camera sensor on a nanometric scale. Researchers hope that it can restore sight to blind people.

New report details experiences of graduates with student loan debt during the Great Recession

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

Most non-borrowers (81 percent) reported that their undergraduate education was worth the cost, compared with 69 percent of graduates who took out student loans.

Scientists map key brain-to-spinal cord nerve connections for voluntary movement

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

Researchers trying to help people suffering from paralysis after a spinal cord injury or stroke mapped critical brain-to-spinal cord nerve connections that drive voluntary movement in forelimbs, a development that scientists say allows them to start looking for specific repair strategies. The study is an important step toward one day rehabilitating motor circuits to help motor function recover after an injury or disease damages the central nervous system, the scientists report in Cell Reports.

Study sheds light on how 'dopamine neurons' contribute to memory formation in humans

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:40 AM PDT

Research sheds light on how the human brain rapidly forms new memories, providing insights into potential new treatments for memory disorders. A new study examined neurons that produce dopamine, a compound that acts as a transmitter for nerve impulses. It found that these dopamine neurons play a critical role in the formation of episodic memory, which allows people to remember such things as where they parked the car in the morning and what they had for dinner last night.

Cracking open the formation of fossil concretions

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:39 AM PDT

Researchers developed a unified model of the formation mechanism of spherical carbonate concretions, which often contain exceptionally well-preserved fossils. The carbon in the carbonate originates from the organisms preserved inside the concretions, and the surrounding muddy matrix limits diffusion and permeability, and thus causes supersaturation of carbonate at a reaction front. Calcite precipitation occurs several orders of magnitude more rapidly than previously recognized in concretions. This understanding may have practical applications in sealing technology.

Ultrafast laser pulse created by golden nanoparticles

Posted: 02 May 2018 07:38 AM PDT

The creation of a fast, tunable and stable nanoparticle-array laser is a stepping stone to affordable and efficient sensing and switching. New study shows that organic dye material combined with metallic nanostructures can provide ultrafast lasing dynamics with short and rapidly appearing laser pulses.

Effectiveness of nonsurgical treatments for knee osteoarthritis ranked

Posted: 02 May 2018 06:47 AM PDT

An estimated 45 percent of people are at risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) in their lifetime. According to a network meta-analysis research article the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen was ranked most effective in individual knee OA treatment for improving both pain and function, and is considered a relatively safe and low-cost treatment method.

Where brain cells get their information may determine their roles in diseases

Posted: 02 May 2018 06:47 AM PDT

Scientists find differences in communication pathways to two cell types implicated in psychiatric and movement disorders.

Internal control helps corals resist acidification

Posted: 02 May 2018 06:46 AM PDT

Scientists have found that some corals are able to combat the effects of ocean acidification by controlling their own chemistry.

Scientists discover the secret behind the stability of carbon isotopes

Posted: 02 May 2018 06:46 AM PDT

An international research collaboration has provided experimental and theoretical evidence for the existence of the magic number of six in carbon isotopes. The researchers experimentally determined the radius of protons in the nuclei of different carbon isotopes. The results were combined with those of calculations and other data analyses, revealing that a proton number of six gave an isotope with high stability; that is, six is a magic number.

How do cells sense glutamine and control their autophagy and activation?

Posted: 02 May 2018 06:46 AM PDT

Scientists have clarified that the Pib2 complex directly bound to glutamine in yeast cells, which activated a signaling pathway for cell growth by suspending autophagy.

Wintering warblers choose agriculture over forest

Posted: 02 May 2018 06:46 AM PDT

Effective conservation for long-distance migrants requires knowing what's going on with them year-round -- not just when they're in North America during the breeding season. A new study uncovers yellow warblers' surprising habitat preferences in their winter home in Mexico and raises questions about what their use of agricultural habitat could mean for their future.

Rethinking the umbrella species concept

Posted: 02 May 2018 06:46 AM PDT

According to the 'umbrella species' concept, preserving and managing habitat for a single high-profile species also benefits a whole suite of other species that share its habitat -- but how well does this really work? Not all species that share the same general habitat necessarily have the same specific needs, and a new study from The Condor: Ornithological Applications finds that habitat management to benefit greater-sage grouse in Wyoming can actually harm some of its songbird neighbors.