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Deer fawns more likely to survive in agricultural landscapes than forest

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

The cruel truth is that throughout the white-tailed deer's range only about half of all fawns live to see their first birthday -- most are killed by predators. However, they have a much better chance of surviving if they are born in farmland rather than in forest, according to researchers.

One detector doesn't 'fit all' for smoke in spacecraft

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

Researchers describe how they looked at the smoke particles produced by five materials commonly used aboard crewed spacecraft, defined their characteristics and evaluated how well they could be detected by two traditional smoke detection systems.

Dehydration prompts more blood feeding by mosquitoes

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

Biologists have found that dry conditions prompted house mosquitoes to seek a blood meal. This could explain why researchers have found higher rates of disease transmission during droughts.

Taking the guesswork out of discovering new high-entropy alloys

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

Scientists have developed a method of computational analysis that can help predict the composition and properties of as-yet unmade high performance alloys.

Study challenges 'shock and kill' approach to eliminating HIV

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

Researchers have provided new insight into the cellular processes behind the 'shock and kill' approach to curing HIV, which they say challenges the effectiveness of the treatment.

Single injection treats hemophilia B for life, in proof-of-concept study

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

Researchers have demonstrated in mice that hemophilia B can be treated for life with one single injection containing disease-free liver cells that can produce their missing clotting factor.

Mercury Rising: New evidence that volcanism triggered the late Devonian extinction

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

The late Devonian extinction, about 370 million years ago, is one of the 'Big Five.' It killed up to 80 percent of species, obliterating the lavish Devonian coral reef ecosystem. The final pulse in this multi-step crisis, called the Frasnian-Famennian event, was its most devastating. But what, exactly, did the killing?

Environmental impact of electric vehicles in China? It depends on how they are charged

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

Electric vehicles play a key role in China's plan to improve air quality and reduce CO2 emissions but, with the majority of China's electricity still coming from coal-fired power plants, many question just how effective this strategy will be. Now, researchers have found that how electric vehicles are charged -- whether in the low-energy slow mode or high-energy fast mode -- plays a significant role in the reduction of CO2 and the integration of wind energy.

Sea turtle nesting beaches threatened by microplastic pollution

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:18 PM PDT

Tiny pieces of plastic could be jeopardizing sensitive sea turtle nesting beaches.

A reimagined future for sustainable nanomaterials

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:17 PM PDT

Engineered nanomaterials hold great promise for medicine, electronics, water treatment, and other fields. But when the materials are designed without critical information about environmental impacts at the start of the process, their long-term effects could undermine those advances. A team of researchers hopes to change that.

Down side of being dubbed 'class clown'

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:17 PM PDT

Being dubbed the class clown by teachers and peers has negative social repercussions for third-grade boys that may portend developmental and academic consequences for them, researchers found.

One-dimensional material packs a powerful punch for next generation electronics

Posted: 01 May 2018 01:17 PM PDT

Engineers have demonstrated prototype devices made of an exotic material that can conduct a current density 50 times greater than conventional copper interconnect technology.

A surprising new superconductor

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:09 AM PDT

A powerful new plated metal combination that superconducts at easily attained temperatures could pave the road for the next critical steps in the development of cutting-edge supercomputers.

Climate change study finds New Hampshire's warmer weather will bring warmer streams

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Air temperature increases from climate change will make New Hampshire's streams warmer. A new study examined the extent to which stream waters are warming, which has implications for freshwater ecosystems across the nation given that many species depend on cold water to survive.

'Smart' dresser prototype guides people with dementia in getting dressed

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

A new study describes how a 'smart home' prototype may help people with dementia dress themselves through automated assistance, enabling them to maintain independence and dignity and providing their caregivers with a much-needed respite.

Measuring sweat in wearable biosensing devices

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

When people sweat, they unknowingly release a wide range of chemicals that can noninvasively inform clinicians on anything from stress hormone levels to glucose. An international team of researchers recently developed a new membrane that mitigates both issues that arise from direct dermal contact and sweat dilution for sweat biosensors. The membrane performs hundreds of times better than other methods and holds up to repeated use.

A search for cleft palate's cause reveals a map of the facial genome

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Once upon a time in Europe, pregnant women avoided rabbits to prevent their babies from being born with a 'harelip.' But, that isn't the only misconception about the condition now known as cleft lip. Researchers report the popular modern belief that the condition is caused by a gene is wrong. Their research could transform how we understand the formation of the face.

Study exposes key tactic used by deadly fungus

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Scientists have found that a lethal fungus destroys the immune cell that would ordinarily kill it, by stealing its source of nutrients. Candida albicans is a microscopic fungus commonly found in the body but which can become a dangerous infection in vulnerable hospital patients. The study demonstrated that the fungus competes with disease-fighting macrophages by rapidly consuming glucose and causing the macrophages to die.

Lymphatic endothelial cells promote melanoma to spread

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

The lymph vessel endothelial cells play an active role in the spread of melanoma, according to the new study. The researchers found that growing human melanoma cells in co-cultures with human primary lymphatic endothelial cells revealed crosstalk of cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment leading to the increased invasive growth of melanoma cells and distant organ metastasis in a mouse tumour model.

Posting, commenting and customizing on Facebook help involve, empower older adults

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Social networking sites, such as Facebook, offer tools and activities that may help older adults feel more empowered and less isolated, according to researchers. In a study of Facebook use, older adults who posted a lot of personal stories on the social networking site felt a higher sense of community, and the more they customized their profiles, the more in control they felt.

Soccer coaches are an untapped resource in assessing and developing player psychology

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Soccer coaches should be empowered to make reliable assessments of player psychological characteristics, propose sports researchers. Citing the extensive experience of coaches in working with many talented players as an untapped resource in sports psychology research, they suggest that coaches could provide unique insights into the psychological characteristics required for player success. Using coach assessments could help teams to foster talented players and enhance their performance and well-being.

Vegan and traditional kimchi have same microbes

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Researchers have found that kimchi made without seafood products has the same 'probiotic' bacteria as more traditional kimchi.

Acupuncture possible treatment for dental anxiety

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Researchers have found evidence that acupuncture could help people who experience dental anxiety.

Dielectric metamaterial is dynamically tuned by light

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Researchers have built the first metal-free, dynamically tunable metamaterial for controlling electromagnetic waves. The approach could form the basis for technologies ranging from improved security scanners to new types of visual displays. While previous metamaterials control electromagnetic waves through their electric properties, the new technology can also manipulate them through their magnetic properties. It won't melt and can be reconfigured on the fly.

A rose is a rose is a rose: Mathematical model explains how two brains agree on smells

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:08 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered why the brain's olfactory system is so remarkably consistent between individuals, even though the wiring of brain cells in this region differs greatly from person to person. To make sense of this apparent paradox, the researchers developed a computational model showing that two brains need not have previously sniffed the same exact set of odors in order to agree on a new set of scents.

Army's new find lowers accidental stockpile detonation

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:07 AM PDT

Scientists at two major national laboratories have demonstrated a new method for testing explosives stored in weapons stockpiles, a step they say will help reduce accidental detonation and ensure the weapons perform as expected.

Hormone from fat boosts metabolism in both exercise and cold

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:07 AM PDT

Researchers have uncovered a new kind of clue to an individual's variable response to exercise -- a hormone whose levels in the bloodstream rise sharply in exercise as well as in cold.

New diagnostic technique picks up the S in vision

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:07 AM PDT

A new technique that could help improve diagnosis of vision disorders has been successfully tested.

Gliomas: Persistence pays off in discovery that could lead to improved treatment and survivability of patient

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:07 AM PDT

Gliomas are the most common type of central nervous system cancer but how these tumors develop is not fully understood. Sheri Holmen, PhD a researcher at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) and professor of surgery at the University of Utah just published the results of her research on gliomas in Cell Reports. The work is focused on a mutated gene that is a critical piece of the puzzle for glioma development, according to Holmen's work.

Curves or angles? Shapes in businesses affect customer response

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:07 AM PDT

When you're waiting in a busy restaurant or doctor's office, it may matter whether the tables, light fixtures and other objects are round or square. In a laboratory study, researchers found the shape of physical objects in a service business affected customer satisfaction, depending on how crowded the business was in the experimental scenarios.

Use of ibuprofen and similar NSAIDs may shorten life of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

Posted: 01 May 2018 10:07 AM PDT

Ibuprofen, aspirin, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications are among the most commonly utilized medications in the United States. Primarily for treating pain, inflammation, and preventing cardiovascular disease, NSAIDs' promising anti-cancer properties have been highlighted by a growing body of data in recent years. However, a new study indicated that non-aspirin NSAID use was associated with shorter overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).

La Niña-like ocean cooling patterns intensify northwestern Pacific tropical cyclones

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:55 AM PDT

Atmospheric researchers report that a strong connection between sea surface temperature patterns is associated with the Global Warming Hiatus and changes in cyclone activity over the northwest Pacific Ocean, particularly increasing intensities in coastal regions of East Asia.

'Valleytronics' discovery could extend limits of Moore's Law

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:55 AM PDT

Researchers have found useful new information-handling potential in samples of tin(II) sulfide (SnS), a candidate 'valleytronics' transistor material that might one day enable chipmakers to pack more computing power onto microchips. 

Fracking the immune system

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:55 AM PDT

Researchers are the first to report links between early life exposure to chemicals in ground water near fracking sites and immune system imbalances in mice. Their findings suggest that exposure to these chemicals during development may adversely affect the immune system's ability to fight diseases like multiple sclerosis later in life.

Lightning carries potential danger to people with deep brain stimulators

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:55 AM PDT

Patients receiving deep brain stimulation are warned that their neurostimulators may dysfunction when confronted by electromagnetic fields generated by particular electrical devices found at work, home, and in the hospital. A new and potentially dangerous source of dysfunction has been identified: nearby lightening.

Acute and chronic changes in myelin following mild traumatic brain injury

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:55 AM PDT

Preliminary research using mcDESPOT magnetic resonance imaging shows changes in the myelin content of white matter in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury. Myelin changes are apparent at the time of injury and three months afterward.

Protein mimic developed to help injured lungs breathe

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:55 AM PDT

Researchers have bioengineered an effective protein mimic that restored breathing capacity to the injured lungs of rats, according to a new study.

Patients get faster life-saving treatment in states with policies allowing direct transport to specialized heart attack care hospitals

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:55 AM PDT

People having heart attacks get faster life-saving treatment if they live in states that allow EMS to bypass closer hospitals that don't offer the specialized treatment, taking patients directly to those that do. Reducing the time from first medical contact to treatment that restores blood flow to the heart is the most critical factor in improving patient survival.

American pikas tolerate climate change better than expected

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:53 AM PDT

The American pika, a relative of rabbits, occupies rocky environments in the mountains of western Northern America. It has been widely thought that pikas could not survive extremes of temperature and thus were at risk of running out of space at the tops of mountains as temperatures rise due to climate change. But is there more to the story?

Small earthquakes caused by migrating gasses in the underground

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:51 AM PDT

The metropolitan area of Istanbul with around 15 million inhabitants is considered to be particularly earthquake-prone. In order to be able to assess the risk correctly, researchers must decipher the processes underground. Below the Marmara Sea, an international research team detected earthquakes that were not directly caused by tectonic stresses but by rising natural gas.

Novel cancer vaccine strategy blocks death of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:51 AM PDT

New research could serve as the stepping-stone in constructing vaccines with a greater likelihood of finding and attacking tumors in the human body.

EEG signals accurately predict autism as early as 3 months of age

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:51 AM PDT

Autism is challenging to diagnose, especially early in life. A new study shows that inexpensive EEGs, which measure brain electrical activity, accurately predict or rule out autism spectrum disorder in infants, even in some as young as three months.

Medical marijuana could reduce opioid use in older adults

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:51 AM PDT

A study shows up to 65 percent of older adults who use medical marijuana significantly reduced their chronic pain and dependence on opioid painkillers.

New insights into the origins of mutations in cancer

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:51 AM PDT

Using worm experiments, scientists were able to study the processes generating cancer-causing DNA mutations in detail. The findings help identify the causes of human cancer. Such insights could be an important first step in identifying possible directions for new cancer treatments.

Breakthrough for kinesiologists studying metabolic protein

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:38 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a new method for analyzing an important metabolic protein in muscles.

Physicists find properties of magnetic soliton of interest for brain-inspired computing

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:38 AM PDT

A team of physicists has uncovered properties of a category of magnetic waves relevant to the development of neuromorphic computing -- an artificial intelligence system that seeks to mimic human-brain function.

Marmosets as the canary in the coal mine for Zika

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:38 AM PDT

New research shows small, New World monkeys called marmosets may be an important animal model for emerging viruses with the potential for harmful effects on fetuses. Establishing animal models for emerging diseases, like Zika, is necessary for the development of vaccines, therapies and diagnostics.

Brain's window for language learning open until adulthood

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:38 AM PDT

It has long been known that children learn language more easily than adults, but determining exactly when that ability declines has been something of a mystery. Researchers now report that prime language learning years extend approximately a decade longer than previously thought -- until 17.4 years of age. The new findings hold implications for neuroscience, linguistics, developmental psychology and public policy.

New lab study reveals how breast cancer drug can accelerate cancer cell growth

Posted: 01 May 2018 05:36 AM PDT

The breast cancer drug lapatinib which is designed to shrink tumors can sometimes cause them to grow in the lab, according to a new study. By understanding the molecular basis of this phenomenon, scientists hope that their findings will lead to safer treatment decision-making and drug design in the future.

Diet rich in fish and legumes may help delay natural menopause

Posted: 30 Apr 2018 06:24 PM PDT

A diet rich in fish and legumes may help to delay the natural menopause, while high dietary intake of refined carbs, such as pasta and rice, may instead help to hasten it, suggests the first UK study of its kind.

Discovery of immune cells able to defend against mutating viruses could transform vaccine development

Posted: 30 Apr 2018 06:23 PM PDT

Scientists have found immune cells can fight different strains of the same virus -- a discovery which could help transform vaccine development.

Proximity to fracking sites affects public support of them, study finds

Posted: 30 Apr 2018 06:23 PM PDT

People who live closer to fracking sites are more familiar with and more supportive of hydraulic fracturing, while those who live in proximity to areas of higher oil and gas well density are more familiar with but not necessarily more supportive of the practice.

Laser frequency combs may be the future of Wi-Fi

Posted: 30 Apr 2018 01:05 PM PDT

Researchers have uncovered a new phenomenon of quantum cascade laser frequency combs, which would allow these devices to act as integrated transmitters or receivers that can efficiently encode information.

Malaria-carrying parasites spread more when they can jump into multiple birds

Posted: 30 Apr 2018 01:04 PM PDT

A study found that blood parasites that cause malaria spread more widely if they can use many different kinds of birds as hosts. But even those 'generalist' parasites are limited.