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User talk:Tifrumkin/TWA

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:44 AM PST

New Message (simulated automatically as part of The Wikipedia Adventure)

New page


{{DISPLAYTITLE:<span style="display:none">{{FULLPAGENAME}}</span>}}<div style="background-color: #040023; color: #E9E9F0; font-family: 'futura', arial, sans serif; margin: -7.5em 0 0 -1.5em">
<div style="padding: 2em">
{{TWA/Logo/3}}
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==Welcome==
Hi <includeonly>{{subst:BASEPAGENAME}}</includeonly>! Welcome to our fantastic collaborative project, where editors build articles based upon reliable sources and help each other to make those articles full of great, neutral information.

I thought it might be helpful for your trip to have a place where you can ask questions along the way. There's a special place called the Teahouse, where you can ask any question you have about editing and get friendly help from trusted hosts. We'd like to have you as a guest. Drop by for a cup of tea anytime!

* [[Wikipedia:Teahouse]]

Great to have you on board! --[[User:WillKomen|WillKomen]] ([[User talk:WillKomen|talk]]) <includeonly>{{subst:currentdate}}</includeonly>

User:Whovian99/sandbox

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:44 AM PST

User:Crestive/sandbox

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Created page with '{{User sandbox}} <!-- EDIT BELOW THIS LINE --> ''''''''Crestive Engineers Pvt Ltd'''''''' '''Crestive...'

New page

{{User sandbox}}
<!-- EDIT BELOW THIS LINE -->

''''''''Crestive Engineers Pvt Ltd''''''''

'''Crestive engineers, innovation, expertise in engineering solutions'''

Crestive Engineers Pvt Ltd focuses on delivering complete solutions in diversified field of activities in industrial, infrastructure, institutional, government sectors and R&D centers. This includes design, engineering, procurement, construction, EPC manufacturing, consultancy, project management and global sourcing.

The company works closely with trusted and accredited professional network of specialists, ensuring that a wealth of knowledge and innovation is brought to each customer experience.

The company distinguish themselves with value-added technical expertise, innovative engineering solutions, quality-certified systems and standards, safety and environmental considerations, client-conscious approach and commitment to cost and time schedules.

'''Products and services'''
The company has a number of diversified products namely chemical processing equipment, liquid, organic or solid waste incinerator and municipal waste incinerator. The services include chemical, pharma or process plant auditing, engineering or construction, AMC and chemical, pharma or process plant inspection.

For any further information, please visit [http://www.crestivengg.com]

'''We distinguish ourselves with our:'''

Value-added technical expertise,
Innovative engineering solutions,
Quality-certified systems and standards,
Safety and environmental considerations,
Client-conscious approach,
Commitment to cost and time schedules.


'''About our Team:'''

Dedicated qualified and experienced mechanical, electrical, civil, software engineers and professionals they are all contributes their full knowledge and experience to meet the customer's need up to their entire satisfaction. A dedicated and skilled work force put their best efforts to meet the quality standard.

Our team is having proven track record and professional skills, woven together with a common culture of trust and caring.

The company offers its people freedom at work, leadership and the opportunity to grow at a rapid pace. It provides them challenging, interesting & motivating assignments which brings a sense of professional fulfillment.

We provide our employees an enormous growth prospect and ability to prove their mettle.

'''Our experienced Team will provide:'''

AMC
Construction/Contracting
Design & Engineering
Project Management

'''Contact Details,'''

Crestive Engineers Pvt Ltd
Plot No 198-199,
Office No: 06 – Royal Heights,
Sector-21, Kamothe,
Navi Mumbai -410 209,
Maharashtra, India
Ph: +91-22-2743 1721
Mail: cepl@crestivengg.com
Web: [http://www.crestivengg.com]

User:Reapok/sandbox

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Reapok moved page User:Reapok/sandbox to Ronna Riva

New page

'''Ronna Riva''' is a [[Singing|singer]] and [[composer]] from [[Europe]]. <ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.google.com/search?q=Ronna+Riva&oq=Ronna+Riva&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i61l2j69i60j69i59l2&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8|title=Ronna Riva - Google Search|website=www.google.com|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref>{{Infobox officeholder
| name = Ronna Riva
| office =
| honorific_prefix =
| honorific_suffix =
| image = Ronaa Riva.jpg
| alt =
| caption = Ronna Riva in 2018
| monarch =
| predecessor =
| primeminister =
| successor =
| signature =
| birth_name = Europe
| birth_date = {{birth date and age|df=y|1988|2|20}}
| birth_place = Europe
| parents =
| occupation = [[Singer]]
| website =
| awards =
| image_size =
| term_start = 2015-Until today
| term_end =
| net_worth =
| module =
}}

== Biography ==
'''Ronna Riva''' is a [[Singing|singer]] and [[composer]] from [[Europe]]. All the songs he has read is in the style of the pope.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.music-map.com/ronna+riva.html|title=Music like Ronna Riva - Similar Bands and Artists|website=www.music-map.com|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://api.discogs.com/artists/5780443|title=RONNA RIVA|website=Discogs|language=en|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref>

== Interview of Ronna Riva ==
Ronna Riva is a promising voice that proves to be versatile with her style and music composition.

"Working on my first album, I discovered my passion for rap. My producer, MYM Constantin, had a strong influence on me and helped me discover this great genre that I was so unfamiliar with. We are currently planning a national tour where you can hear exclusively new material, including pieces made in collaboration with the american artist Will Jordan who worked with Nicki Minaj and Rihanna!' confesses Ronna.

One Dollar has an euphoric feeling and a completely new sound that combines beautifully with Ronna's voice and seductive beat. The imposing attitude of the artist and the song's composition has attracted the attention of several top A&R's from major record labels, being compared with big names in the international music industry.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://314records.com/en/artist-profile-page?m=2808|title=RONNA RIVA|website=314records.com|language=en|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref>

== musics ==

==== Music name<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.shazam.com/track/327122185/one-dollar|title=Shazam|website=Shazam|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://itunes.apple.com/us/artist/ronna-riva/1023430496|title=‎Ronna Riva on Apple Music|website=Apple Music|language=en-us|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref><ref>{{Citation|title=One Dollar|url=https://open.spotify.com/album/1Osq4wYzaUmDxGCOF6Eyrm|language=en|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref><ref>{{Citation|title=One Dollar|url=https://ar.napster.com/artist/ronna-riva/album/one-dollar|language=es-CO|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref> ====

* Morenita
* One Dollar
* Soul Stealer
* Pull The Trigger
* Free Soldier
* Fijate en Mi
* Show You the Way

== External Link ==

* [https://www.instagram.com/ronnariva/ Instagram]
* [https://www.facebook.com/RonnaRiva/ Facebook]

== Reference ==
[[Category:Living people]]
[[Category:Singer stubs]]

Hawaizaada

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Changd India's first to world's first.

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
Line 40: Line 40:
 
| gross = <!--Figure has been contested. Do not add without providing a reliably published source with reputation for editorial oversight.-->
 
| gross = <!--Figure has been contested. Do not add without providing a reliably published source with reputation for editorial oversight.-->
 
}}
 
}}
'''''Hawaizaada''''' is a 2015 Indian film inspired by the biography of [[Shivkar Bapuji Talpade]] and directed by [[Vibhu Puri]].<ref>{{cite web|title='Hawaizaada' special film for Ayushmann Khurrana|url=http://www.mid-day.com/articles/hawaizaada-special-film-for-ayushmann-khurrana/15332194|website=mid-day.com|accessdate=7 June 2014|date=28 May 2014}}</ref> The film stars [[Ayushmann Khurrana]], [[Mithun Chakraborty]] and [[Pallavi Sharda]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bollywoodhungama.com/movies/features/type/view/id/7846|title=Featured Movie News - Featured Bollywood News - Bollywood Hungama|first=Bollywood|last=Hungama|website=Bollywood Hungama}}</ref> Set in Bombay, 1895, it follows a fictionalized story of Talpade who is credited with having constructed India's first unmanned plane.<ref>{{Cite web|url = http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/A-flight-over-Chowpatty-that-made-history/articleshow/890055.cms|title =Shivkar Bapuji Talpade unmanned plane 'Marutsakha' |date = |accessdate = |website = |publisher =THE TIMES OF INDIA |last = |first = }}</ref> The film released on 30 January 2015,received mixed reviews and was a box office bomb.<ref>{{Cite news|url = http://www.hindustantimes.com/reviews/hawaizaada-review-a-masterpiece-about-a-dreamer/article1-1312036.aspx|title=Hawaizaada review |work = Hindustan Times |access-date = }}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url =https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tqwAIvu_8iw|title = Hawaizaada Promotion In Kolkata - Ayushmann Khurrana|date = |accessdate = |website = |publisher =Haalum |last = |first = }}</ref>
+
'''''Hawaizaada''''' is a 2015 Indian film inspired by the biography of [[Shivkar Bapuji Talpade]] and directed by [[Vibhu Puri]].<ref>{{cite web|title='Hawaizaada' special film for Ayushmann Khurrana|url=http://www.mid-day.com/articles/hawaizaada-special-film-for-ayushmann-khurrana/15332194|website=mid-day.com|accessdate=7 June 2014|date=28 May 2014}}</ref> The film stars [[Ayushmann Khurrana]], [[Mithun Chakraborty]] and [[Pallavi Sharda]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bollywoodhungama.com/movies/features/type/view/id/7846|title=Featured Movie News - Featured Bollywood News - Bollywood Hungama|first=Bollywood|last=Hungama|website=Bollywood Hungama}}</ref> Set in Bombay, 1895, it follows a fictionalized story of Talpade who is credited with having constructed world's first unmanned plane.<ref>{{Cite web|url = http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/A-flight-over-Chowpatty-that-made-history/articleshow/890055.cms|title =Shivkar Bapuji Talpade unmanned plane 'Marutsakha' |date = |accessdate = |website = |publisher =THE TIMES OF INDIA |last = |first = }}</ref> The film released on 30 January 2015,received mixed reviews and was a box office bomb.<ref>{{Cite news|url = http://www.hindustantimes.com/reviews/hawaizaada-review-a-masterpiece-about-a-dreamer/article1-1312036.aspx|title=Hawaizaada review |work = Hindustan Times |access-date = }}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url =https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tqwAIvu_8iw|title = Hawaizaada Promotion In Kolkata - Ayushmann Khurrana|date = |accessdate = |website = |publisher =Haalum |last = |first = }}</ref>
   
 
==Plot==
 
==Plot==

User:Lanhupuy

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

User account Lanhupuy was created

A Private Cosmos

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
Line 28: Line 28:
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
* {{Isfdb title|id=11920}}
 
* {{Isfdb title|id=11920}}
* [https://www.worldcat.org/title/private-cosmos/oclc/750716765&referer=brief_results The Gates of Creation], worldcat.org
+
* [https://www.worldcat.org/title/private-cosmos/oclc/750716765&referer=brief_results ''A Private Cosmos''], worldcat.org
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[Simulated reality in fiction]]
 
*[[Simulated reality in fiction]]

History of economic thought

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Trimmed a bit and returned Henry George

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
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A notable current within classical economics was [[underconsumption]] theory, as advanced by the [[Birmingham School (economics)|Birmingham School]] and [[Thomas Robert Malthus]] in the early 19th century. These argued for government action to mitigate [[unemployment]] and economic downturns, and were an intellectual predecessor of what later became [[Keynesian economics]] in the 1930s. Another notable school was [[Manchester capitalism]], which advocated [[free trade]], against the previous policy of [[mercantilism]].
 
A notable current within classical economics was [[underconsumption]] theory, as advanced by the [[Birmingham School (economics)|Birmingham School]] and [[Thomas Robert Malthus]] in the early 19th century. These argued for government action to mitigate [[unemployment]] and economic downturns, and were an intellectual predecessor of what later became [[Keynesian economics]] in the 1930s. Another notable school was [[Manchester capitalism]], which advocated [[free trade]], against the previous policy of [[mercantilism]].
   
===Capitalism, Communism, and Karl Marx===
+
===Karl Marx and communism===
 
{{Main article|Marxian economics}}
 
{{Main article|Marxian economics}}
[[File:Marx old.jpg|left|thumb|100px|Karl Marx (1818–1883) published a fundamental critique of classical economics based on the [[labor theory of value]].]]
+
[[File:Marx old.jpg|left|thumb|100px|Karl Marx (1818–1883) published a critique of classical economics based on his reinterpretation of the [[labor theory of value]].]]
 
[[File:Engels 1856.jpg|thumb|right|100px|With Marx, Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) co-authored The Communist Manifesto and the second volume of ''[[Das Kapital]]''.]]
 
[[File:Engels 1856.jpg|thumb|right|100px|With Marx, Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) co-authored The Communist Manifesto and the second volume of ''[[Das Kapital]]''.]]
 
 
{{Key people|Karl Marx|Friedrich Engels}}
 
{{Key people|Karl Marx|Friedrich Engels}}
 
[[File:G.W.F. Hegel (by Sichling, after Sebbers).jpg|right|thumb|100px|George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831)]]
 
 
Just as the term "mercantilism" had been coined and popularized by critics like Adam Smith, so the term "capitalism" coined by Karl Marx (1818–1883) was used by its critics. [[Socialism]] emerged in response to the miserable living and working conditions of the [[working class]] in the new industrial era, and the classical economics from which it sprang. The economic and political theory published in ''[[The Communist Manifesto]]'' (1848) and ''[[Das Kapital]]'' (1867) combined with the [[Dialectical materialism|dialectic theory of history]] inspired by [[Friedrich Hegel]] (1770–1831) to provide a revolutionary critique of nineteenth-century capitalism.{{Citation needed|date=April 2015}}
 
 
In 1845 German radical [[Friedrich Engels]] (1820–1895) published ''[[The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844]]'',<ref name=workingclass /> describing workers in Manchester as "the most unconcealed pinnacle of social misery in our day." After Marx died, Engels completed the second volume of ''[[Das Kapital]]'' from his notes.
 
 
====''Das Kapital''====
 
 
{{Main article|Das Kapital|Capital, Volume I|Karl Marx}}
 
{{Main article|Das Kapital|Capital, Volume I|Karl Marx}}
 
[[File:Zentralbibliothek Zürich Das Kapital Marx 1867.jpg|thumb|left|120px|The title page of the first edition of ''Das Kapital'' (1867) in [[German language|German]].]]
 
[[File:Zentralbibliothek Zürich Das Kapital Marx 1867.jpg|thumb|left|120px|The title page of the first edition of ''Das Kapital'' (1867) in [[German language|German]].]]
Line 394: Line 385:
 
Marx wrote his magnum opus ''[[Das Kapital]]'' (1867) at the [[British Museum]]'s library in London. Karl Marx begins with the concept of [[commodities]]. Before capitalism, says Marx, production was based on [[slavery]] – in [[ancient Rome]] for example – then [[serfdom]] in the [[Feudalism|feudal]] societies of [[medieval Europe]]. The current mode of labor exchange{{clarify|date=April 2015}} has produced an erratic and unstable situation allowing the conditions for [[revolution]]. People buy and sell their labor as people buy and sell goods and services. People themselves have become disposable [[commodities]]. As Marx wrote in ''[[The Communist Manifesto]]'',
 
Marx wrote his magnum opus ''[[Das Kapital]]'' (1867) at the [[British Museum]]'s library in London. Karl Marx begins with the concept of [[commodities]]. Before capitalism, says Marx, production was based on [[slavery]] – in [[ancient Rome]] for example – then [[serfdom]] in the [[Feudalism|feudal]] societies of [[medieval Europe]]. The current mode of labor exchange{{clarify|date=April 2015}} has produced an erratic and unstable situation allowing the conditions for [[revolution]]. People buy and sell their labor as people buy and sell goods and services. People themselves have become disposable [[commodities]]. As Marx wrote in ''[[The Communist Manifesto]]'',
   
 
Marx uses the word "commodity" in an extensive [[Metaphysics|metaphysical]] discussion of the nature of material wealth, how the objects of wealth are perceived and how they can be used. A commodity contrasts to objects of the natural world. When people mix their labor with an object it becomes a "commodity". In the natural world there are trees, [[diamond]]s, [[iron ore]] and people. In the economic world they become chairs, [[Ring (finger)|rings]], [[factory|factories]] and workers. However, says Marx, commodities have a dual nature, a dual value. He distinguishes the [[use value]] of a thing from its [[exchange value]].<ref>In Marx's words, "the exchange of commodities is evidently an act characterized by a total abstraction from use value."</ref> The use value of a commodity exists only as that commodity is used or consumed. If commodities are considered absolutely isolated from their useful qualities the common property is ''human labor in the abstract''. Marx attempted to support his theory by linking his ideas of "[[surplus value]]" and "[[socially necessary labor time]]" with the classical [[labor theory of value]] and [[the law of rent|theories of rent]]. Marx theorized that people [[Commodity-fetishism|over-value commodities]] such as glimmering diamonds.<ref>Marx (1867) Volume I, Part I, Chapter 1, Section 4, para 123</ref> Marx applied the use/exchange distinction to labor and claimed that employers pay their workers less in "exchange value" than the workers produce in "use value". The difference, in Marx's terminology, is "[[surplus value]]".<ref>Marx (1867) Volume I, Part III, Chapter 9, Section 1</ref> Therefore, says Marx, capitalism is a system of [[Exploitation of labour|exploitation]].
{{quote|The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guildmaster and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another... The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones.}}
 
 
From the first page of ''Das Kapital'':
 
 
{{quote|The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as an immense accumulation of commodities, its unit being a single commodity. Our investigation must therefore begin with the analysis of a commodity.<ref>Marx (1859) ''Zur Kritik der Politischen Oekonomie'', Berlin, p. 3.</ref>}}
 
 
Marx uses the word "commodity" in an extensive [[Metaphysics|metaphysical]] discussion of the nature of material wealth, how the objects of wealth are perceived and how they can be used. A commodity contrasts to objects of the natural world. When people mix their labor with an object it becomes a "commodity". In the natural world there are trees, [[diamond]]s, [[iron ore]] and people. In the economic world they become chairs, [[Ring (finger)|rings]], [[factory|factories]] and workers. However, says Marx, commodities have a dual nature, a dual value. He distinguishes the [[use value]] of a thing from its [[exchange value]], which can be entirely different.<ref>In Marx's words, "the exchange of commodities is evidently an act characterized by a total abstraction from use value."</ref> The use value of a commodity exists only as that commodity is used or consumed. If commodities are considered absolutely isolated from their useful qualities the common property is ''human labor in the abstract''. In this sense, ''value'' is human labor and is the most abstract and common property embodied in commodities. This follows the classical economists in the [[labor theory of value]]. He believed value can derive too from natural goods and refined his definition of value to "[[socially necessary labor time]]", by which he meant the time people need to produce things when they are not lazy or inefficient.<ref>Marx (1867) Volume I, Part I, Chapter 1, para 14. In Marx's words, "The labor time socially necessary is that required to produce an article under the normal conditions of production, and with the average degree of skill and intensity prevalent at the time."</ref> Furthermore, people subjectively inflate the value of things, for instance because there's a [[Commodity-fetishism|commodity fetish]] for glimmering diamonds,<ref>Marx (1867) Volume I, Part I, Chapter 1, Section 4, para 123</ref> and oppressive power relations involved in commodity production. These two factors mean exchange values differ greatly. An oppressive power relation, says Marx applying the use/exchange distinction to labor itself, in work-wage bargains derives from the fact that employers pay their workers less in "exchange value" than the workers produce in "use value". The difference makes up the capitalist's [[Profit (economics)|profit]], or in Marx's terminology, "[[surplus value]]".<ref>Marx (1867) Volume I, Part III, Chapter 9, Section 1</ref> Therefore, says Marx, capitalism is a system of [[Exploitation of labour|exploitation]].
 
 
[[File:Panic of 1873 bank run.jpg|thumb|right|100px|Marx explained the [[Boom and bust|booms and busts]], like the [[Panic of 1873]], as part of an inherent instability in capitalist economies.]]
 
 
Marx's work turned the [[labor theory of value]], as the classicists called it, on its head. His dark irony goes deeper by asking what is the socially necessary labor time for the production of labor (i.e. working people) itself. Marx answers that this is the bare minimum for people to subsist and to reproduce with skills necessary in the economy.<ref>Marx (1867) Volume I, Part II, Chapter VI, para 10. In Marx's words: "Therefore the labor-time requisite for the production of labor-power reduces itself to that necessary for the production of those means of subsistence; in other words, the value of labor-power is the value of the means of subsistence necessary for the maintenance of the laborer."</ref>
 
 
People are therefore [[Marx's theory of alienation|alienated]] from both the fruits of production and the means to realize their potential, psychologically, by their oppressed position in the labor market. But the tale told alongside exploitation and alienation is one of [[capital accumulation]] and [[economic growth]]. Employers are constantly under pressure from market competition to drive their workers harder, and at the limits invest in labor-displacing technology, by replacing an assembly line packer, for example. with a robot. This increases profits and expands growth, but for the sole benefit of those who have private property in these [[means of production]]. The working classes meanwhile face progressive immiseration, having had the product of their labor exploited from them, having been alienated from the tools of production. And having been fired from their jobs and replaced by machines, they end up unemployed. Marx believed that a [[reserve army of the unemployed]] would grow and grow, fueling a downward pressure on wages as desperate people accepted work for less. But this would produce a deficit of [[demand]] as the people's [[Purchasing power|power to purchase]] products lagged. A glut of unsold products would result, production would be cut back, and profits decline until capital accumulation halted in an [[economic depression]]. When the glut cleared, the economy would again start to boom before the next cyclical bust begins. With every [[boom and bust]], with every capitalist crisis, thought Marx, tension and [[Class conflict|conflict]] between the increasingly polarized classes of capitalists and workers would heighten. Moreover, smaller firms are being gobbled by larger ones in every business cycle, as power is concentrated in the hands of the few and away from the many. Ultimately, led by the [[Communist party]], Marx envisaged a revolution and the creation of a classless society. How this society might work, Marx never suggested. His primary contribution was not a blueprint for what a new society would be, but a criticism of the one he saw.
 
   
 
Marx believed that a [[reserve army of the unemployed]] would grow and grow, fueling a downward pressure on wages as desperate people accepted work for less. But this would produce a deficit of [[demand]] as the people's [[Purchasing power|power to purchase]] products lagged. A glut of unsold products would result, production would be cut back, and profits decline until capital accumulation halted in an [[economic depression]]. When the glut cleared, the economy would again start to boom before the next cyclical bust begins. With every [[boom and bust]], with every capitalist crisis, thought Marx, tension and [[Class conflict|conflict]] between the increasingly polarized classes of capitalists and workers would heighten. Ultimately, led by the [[Communist party]], Marx envisaged a revolution and the creation of a classless society.
====Marx's disciples====
 
{{Main article|Karl Kautsky|Rosa Luxemburg|Beatrice Webb|John A. Hobson|Isaak Illich Rubin|Henryk Grossman|Samezō Kuruma|R. H. Tawney|Paul Mattick|Paul Sweezy}}
 
[[File:Rosa Luxembourg.jpg|thumb|left|100px|Rosa Luxembourg (1871–1919)]]
 
   
  +
===Henry George and geoism===
The first volume of ''Das Kapital'' was the only one Marx alone published. The second and third volumes were produced with the help of [[Friedrich Engels]]; [[Karl Kautsky]], who had become a friend of Engels, saw through the publication of volume four. Published as the three volume 'Theories of Surplus Value'.
 
  +
{{Main|Henry George|Georgism|geolibertarianism|land value tax|ecological economics|commons|economic rent}}
  +
[[Image:Henry George.jpg|thumb|left|thumb|120px|In 1879, Henry George published an explosively popular treatise on why poverty accompanies progress and why boom follows bust.]]
   
  +
Henry George (1839-1897) is popularly recognized as the intellectual inspiration for the economic philosophy now known as [[geoism]]. George is said to be the last classical economist. During his life, George was one of the three most famous Americans, along with [[Henry Ford]] and [[Thomas Edison]]. George's first book, ''[[Progress and Poverty]]'', was one of the most widely printed books in English, selling between 3 and 6 million copies by the early 1900s. ''Progress and Poverty'' sparked a worldwide reform movement and is sometimes marked as the beginning of the [[Progressive Era]]. Georgism declined in the second half of the 20th Century as the [[Marxist]] and [[Austrian school|Austrian]] and [[Keynesian]] neoclassical schools gained popularity. There are active Georgist organizations and land reform movements around the world. George's ideas have been incorporated into the philosophies of [[socialism]], [[libertarianism]], and [[ecological economics]]. [[Paul Samuelson]] listed Henry George as one of only six "American saints" in classical economics.<ref>{{cite book | last = Samuelson | first = Paul | title = The collected scientific papers of Paul A. Samuelson | publisher = M.I.T. Press | location = Cambridge, Mass | year = 1966 | isbn = 9780262190800 }}</ref>
Marx began a tradition of economists who became political activists, including [[Rosa Luxemburg]] (1871–1919), a member of the [[Social Democratic Party of Germany]] who later turned towards the [[Communist Party of Germany]] because of their stance against the First World War, and [[Beatrice Webb]] (1858–1943) of England, a socialist who helped found both the [[London School of Economics]] (LSE) and the [[Fabian Society]] and the principal re-articulator of his [[Crisis theory]] [[Henryk Grossman]] (1881–1950).<ref>Rick Kuhn 'Henryk Grossman and the Recovery of Marxism' University of Illinois [2007]</ref>
 
   
 
===The London School of Economics===
 
===The London School of Economics===

User:Prashantrajendrasingh

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

User account Prashantrajendrasingh was created

Samarahan Division

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

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'''Samarahan Division''' is one of the twelve administrative divisions in [[Sarawak]], [[Malaysia]]. Formerly part of the First Division, which included [[Kuching]], it became a separate Division on 24 July 1986, with a total area of 4,967.4 square kilometres.
 
'''Samarahan Division''' is one of the twelve administrative divisions in [[Sarawak]], [[Malaysia]]. Formerly part of the First Division, which included [[Kuching]], it became a separate Division on 24 July 1986, with a total area of 4,967.4 square kilometres.
   
Samarahan Division formerly contained four administrative districts: [[Samarhan District|Samarahan]], [[Asajaya]], [[Serian, Sarawak|Serian]] and [[Simunjan District|Simunjan]]. The total population was 246,782 (year 2010 census). but on 11 April 2015 the Serian District was separated to form a [[Serian Division|new Division]]. The population is ethnically mixed, with mostly [[Bidayuh]], [[Iban people|Iban]], [[Malay people|Malay]] and [[Han Chinese|Chinese]] predominating.
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Samarahan Division formerly contained four administrative districts: [[Kota Samarahan|Samarahan]], [[Asajaya]], [[Serian, Sarawak|Serian]] and [[Simunjan District|Simunjan]]. The total population was 246,782 (year 2010 census). but on 11 April 2015 the Serian District was separated to form a [[Serian Division|new Division]]. The population is ethnically mixed, with mostly [[Bidayuh]], [[Iban people|Iban]], [[Malay people|Malay]] and [[Han Chinese|Chinese]] predominating.
   
 
On 11 November 2016, the status of Majlis Daerah Samarahan has been upgraded to Majlis Perbandaran Kota Samarahan, giving Kota Samarahan, the capital of Samarahan division from small town to town. The declaration took place in Kota Samarahan by the then Chief Minister of Sarawak, Tan Sri Datuk Patinggi (Dr.) Haji Adenan bin Haji Satem. He was represented by his deputy, Deputy Chief Minister, Tan Sri Datuk Amar [[James Jemut Masing]].
 
On 11 November 2016, the status of Majlis Daerah Samarahan has been upgraded to Majlis Perbandaran Kota Samarahan, giving Kota Samarahan, the capital of Samarahan division from small town to town. The declaration took place in Kota Samarahan by the then Chief Minister of Sarawak, Tan Sri Datuk Patinggi (Dr.) Haji Adenan bin Haji Satem. He was represented by his deputy, Deputy Chief Minister, Tan Sri Datuk Amar [[James Jemut Masing]].

D1NZ

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Updated sanctioned Motorsport New Zealand status, reworded description for the two classes. Constructor added: BMW

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| drivers =
 
| drivers =
 
| teams =
 
| teams =
| constructors = [[Nissan]]{{•}}[[Toyota]]{{•}}[[Mazda]]{{•}}[[Holden]]{{•}}[[Ford]]
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| constructors = [[Nissan]]{{•}}[[Toyota]]{{•}}[[Mazda]]{{•}}[[Holden]]{{•}}[[Ford]]{{•}}[[BMW]]
 
| engines =
 
| engines =
 
| champion driver = <b>Pro:</b> Cole Armstrong<br><b>Pro-Sport:</b> Liam Burke
 
| champion driver = <b>Pro:</b> Cole Armstrong<br><b>Pro-Sport:</b> Liam Burke
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| website = [http://www.d1nz.com d1nz.com]
 
| website = [http://www.d1nz.com d1nz.com]
 
}}
 
}}
'''D1NZ''' is a production car [[Drifting (motorsport)|drifting]] series in [[New Zealand]]. There is currently no New Zealand drifting championship so D1NZ is the premier series running as a clubsport advanced event under MotorSport New Zealand. It began early in 2003 as a small competition consisting of several drifting teams from all over the country in order to organise and regulate Drifting events on the circuit. Since then it has continued to grow larger and more professional, now involving professional drivers with sponsored cars. The series now includes two championships: Pro and Pro-sport. New competitors generally need to prove themselves in the Pro-sport championship before entering the Pro championship (unless coming from an equivalent international series). Organizers aim to promote and educate Drifting in New Zealand, with a regulated safe environment. Despite similar moniker, the series is not related to the Japanese [[D1 Grand Prix]] series. It has been recognised as the longest running drifting series in the world.
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'''D1NZ''' is a production car [[Drifting (motorsport)|drifting]] series in [[New Zealand]], a sanctioned championship under Motorsport New Zealand, the official [[FIA]] appointed governing body of motor-racing in New Zealand.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.motorsport.org.nz/d1nz-series/|title=D1NZ Drift Championship Series|language=en-NZ|access-date=2019-01-08}}</ref> It began early in 2003 as a small competition consisting of several drifting teams from all over the country in order to organise and regulate Drifting events in the country. Since then it has continued to grow larger and more professional, now involving professional teams and drivers.
  +
  +
The series is comprised of two national title competitions, the D1NZ Pro Championship<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://d1nz.com/series-info/d1nz-pro-championship-series|title=D1NZ Pro-Championship Series|website=d1nz.com|access-date=2019-01-08}}</ref> and the D1NZ Pro-Sport Series.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://d1nz.com/series-info/d1nz-pro-sport-series|title=D1NZ Pro-Sport Series|website=d1nz.com|access-date=2019-01-08}}</ref> New competitors generally need to prove themselves in the Pro-Sport Series before progressing into the pro class, unless competing with an equivalent international licence. Organizers aim to promote and educate Drifting in New Zealand, with a regulated safe environment. Despite similar moniker, the series is not related to the Japanese [[D1 Grand Prix]] series. It has been recognised as the longest running drifting series in the world.
   
 
[[Image:D1NZ07072007.jpg|thumb|right|Daniel 'Fanga Dan' Woolhouse drifting during the 2007 event at [[Mystery Creek Events Centre]]]]
 
[[Image:D1NZ07072007.jpg|thumb|right|Daniel 'Fanga Dan' Woolhouse drifting during the 2007 event at [[Mystery Creek Events Centre]]]]
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==List of Pro-Sport Champions==
 
==List of Pro-Sport Champions==
Formally referred to as Pro-Am from the 2010 - '11 season until its name change in 2015 - '16 to Pro-Sport.
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Formally referred to as Pro-Am from the 2010 - '11 season until its name change in 2015 - '16 to Pro-Sport.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://d1nz.com/series-info/d1nz-pro-sport-series|title=D1NZ Pro-Sport Series|website=d1nz.com|access-date=2019-01-08}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="font-size: 85%;"
 
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User:Backspacekey

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Interests

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==Interests==
 
==Interests==
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*Law, particularly with regards to Health Care and Privacy
*Genealogy of the Dodge Family
 
 
*Architectural History
 
*Architectural History
 
*Woodworking
 
*Woodworking

Military history of Canada during World War II

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Early campaigns: created subsec

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==Early campaigns==
 
==Early campaigns==
{{further|Battle for France|Occupation of Iceland|Battle of Britain|The Blitz|Operation Gauntlet|}}
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{{further|Battle for France|Operation Gauntlet|}}
 
[[File:Instructor and student with North American Harvard II aircraft.jpg|left|thumb|A [[British Commonwealth Air Training Plan]] facility in [[Uplands, Ontario|Uplands]], [[Ontario]]. Canada's role in the war was initially envisioned to train Commonwealth pilots, and supply food, and raw materials for the Empire.]]
 
[[File:Instructor and student with North American Harvard II aircraft.jpg|left|thumb|A [[British Commonwealth Air Training Plan]] facility in [[Uplands, Ontario|Uplands]], [[Ontario]]. Canada's role in the war was initially envisioned to train Commonwealth pilots, and supply food, and raw materials for the Empire.]]
 
Although it regularly consulted with Canada, Britain was essentially in charge of both countries' war plans during the first nine months of the war. Neither nation seriously planned for Canada's own defence; Canada's training, production, and equipment emphasized combat in Europe. Its primary role was to supply food, raw materials, and to train pilots from throughout the Empire with the [[British Commonwealth Air Training Plan]], which the British proposed on 26 September 1939; not send hundreds of thousands of troops overseas as it had done in World War I.{{r|dean194010}}<ref name="douglas1975">{{cite journal | jstor=40201224 | title=Why Does Canada Have Armed Forces? | author=Douglas, W. A. B. | journal=International Journal |date=Spring 1975 | volume=30 | issue=2 | pages=259–283 | doi=10.2307/40201224}}</ref> Canada was the primary location of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, the largest air force training program in history. 131,553 air force personnel, including 49,808 pilots, were trained at airbases in Canada from October 1940 to March 1945.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/bcatp/page5 |title=Categories of Air Crew Graduates October 1940 March 1945 – Veterans Affairs Canada |publisher=Vac-acc.gc.ca |date=11 April 2000 |accessdate=2011-02-24}}</ref> More than half of the BCAT graduates were Canadians who went on to serve with the RCAF and [[Royal Air Force]] (RAF). One out of the six [[RAF Bomber Command]] groups flying in Europe was Canadian.
 
Although it regularly consulted with Canada, Britain was essentially in charge of both countries' war plans during the first nine months of the war. Neither nation seriously planned for Canada's own defence; Canada's training, production, and equipment emphasized combat in Europe. Its primary role was to supply food, raw materials, and to train pilots from throughout the Empire with the [[British Commonwealth Air Training Plan]], which the British proposed on 26 September 1939; not send hundreds of thousands of troops overseas as it had done in World War I.{{r|dean194010}}<ref name="douglas1975">{{cite journal | jstor=40201224 | title=Why Does Canada Have Armed Forces? | author=Douglas, W. A. B. | journal=International Journal |date=Spring 1975 | volume=30 | issue=2 | pages=259–283 | doi=10.2307/40201224}}</ref> Canada was the primary location of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, the largest air force training program in history. 131,553 air force personnel, including 49,808 pilots, were trained at airbases in Canada from October 1940 to March 1945.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=history/secondwar/bcatp/page5 |title=Categories of Air Crew Graduates October 1940 March 1945 – Veterans Affairs Canada |publisher=Vac-acc.gc.ca |date=11 April 2000 |accessdate=2011-02-24}}</ref> More than half of the BCAT graduates were Canadians who went on to serve with the RCAF and [[Royal Air Force]] (RAF). One out of the six [[RAF Bomber Command]] groups flying in Europe was Canadian.
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This situation began to change on 24 May 1940, during the [[Battle for France]], when Britain told Canada that it could no longer provide equipment. 48 hours later, Britain asked Canada for equipment. On 28 May seven Canadian destroyers sailed to the [[English Channel]], leaving only two French submarines to defend the nation's Atlantic coast. Canada also sent 50 to 60 million rounds of small arms ammunition and 75,000 [[Ross rifle]]s, leaving itself with a shortage. The air training plan's first graduates were intended to become instructors for future students, but they were sent to Europe immediately because of the danger to Britain. The end of British equipment deliveries threatened the training plan, and King had to ask president [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] of the United States for aircraft and engines by stating that they would help defend North America.<ref name="dean194010">{{cite journal | jstor=20029058 | title=Canada's New Defense Program | author=Dean, Edgard Packard | journal=Foreign Affairs |date=October 1940 | volume=19 | issue=1 | pages=222–236 | doi=10.2307/20029058}}</ref>{{r|stacey1970}}{{rp|35–36}}
 
This situation began to change on 24 May 1940, during the [[Battle for France]], when Britain told Canada that it could no longer provide equipment. 48 hours later, Britain asked Canada for equipment. On 28 May seven Canadian destroyers sailed to the [[English Channel]], leaving only two French submarines to defend the nation's Atlantic coast. Canada also sent 50 to 60 million rounds of small arms ammunition and 75,000 [[Ross rifle]]s, leaving itself with a shortage. The air training plan's first graduates were intended to become instructors for future students, but they were sent to Europe immediately because of the danger to Britain. The end of British equipment deliveries threatened the training plan, and King had to ask president [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] of the United States for aircraft and engines by stating that they would help defend North America.<ref name="dean194010">{{cite journal | jstor=20029058 | title=Canada's New Defense Program | author=Dean, Edgard Packard | journal=Foreign Affairs |date=October 1940 | volume=19 | issue=1 | pages=222–236 | doi=10.2307/20029058}}</ref>{{r|stacey1970}}{{rp|35–36}}
[[File:Pilots of No. 1 Squadron RCAF with one of their Hawker Hurricanes at Prestwick, Scotland, 30 October 1940. CH1733.jpg|left|thumb|Pilots of [[401 Tactical Fighter Squadron|No. 1 Squadron RCAF]] in the UK, October 1940. The squadron was deployed to the UK in June 1940, shortly before the [[Battle of Britain]].]]
 
Between the collapse of France in June 1940 and the [[Operation Barbarossa|German invasion of the USSR]] in June 1941, Canada supplied Britain with urgently needed food, weapons, and war materials by naval [[convoy]]s and [[airlift]]s, as well as pilots and planes who fought in the [[Battle of Britain]] and [[the Blitz]]. During the Battle of Britain between 88 and 112 Canadian pilots served in the RAF,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/en/battle-britain/history.page|title=History|date= 24 June 2014}}</ref> most had come to Britain on their own initiative. For political necessity an "all Canadian" [[No. 242 Squadron RAF|squadron]] was formed under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan at the start of the war and the Squadron served in the Battle of France. They were later joined by [[No. 401 Squadron RCAF|No. 1 Squadron RCAF]] in June 1940 during the Battle for Britain and they were in "the thick" of fighting in August, by the end of the battle in October 1940, 23 Canadian pilots had been killed.<ref>Bungay, Stephen, '' The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain'' Aurum Press Ltd, 2009 {{ISBN|978-1845134815}}</ref> Squadrons of the RCAF and individual Canadian pilots flying with the British RAF fought with distinction in [[Supermarine Spitfire|Spitfire]] and [[Hawker Hurricane|Hurricane]] fighters during the [[Battle of Britain]]. By 1 January 1943, there were enough RCAF bombers and crews in Britain to form [[No. 6 Group RCAF|No. 6 Group]], one of eight bomber groups within [[RAF Bomber Command]]. If the planned German [[Operation Sealion|invasion of Britain]] had taken place in 1941, units of the formation later known as [[I Canadian Corps]] were already deployed between the [[English Channel]] and London to meet them.
 
   
 
As the fall of France grew imminent Britain looked to Canada to rapidly provide additional troops to strategic locations in North America, the Atlantic and Caribbean. Following the Canadian destroyer already on station from 1939, Canada provided troops from May 1940 to assist in the defence of the West Indies with several companies serving throughout the war in Bermuda, Jamaica, the Bahamas and British Guiana.{{r|stacey1970}}
 
As the fall of France grew imminent Britain looked to Canada to rapidly provide additional troops to strategic locations in North America, the Atlantic and Caribbean. Following the Canadian destroyer already on station from 1939, Canada provided troops from May 1940 to assist in the defence of the West Indies with several companies serving throughout the war in Bermuda, Jamaica, the Bahamas and British Guiana.{{r|stacey1970}}
  +
  +
===Defence of the United Kingdom===
  +
{{further|Occupation of Iceland|Battle of Britain|The Blitz}}
 
[[File:Pilots of No. 1 Squadron RCAF with one of their Hawker Hurricanes at Prestwick, Scotland, 30 October 1940. CH1733.jpg|left|thumb|Pilots of [[401 Tactical Fighter Squadron|No. 1 Squadron RCAF]] in the UK, October 1940. The squadron was deployed to the UK in June 1940, shortly before the [[Battle of Britain]].]]
 
Between the collapse of France in June 1940 and the [[Operation Barbarossa|German invasion of the USSR]] in June 1941, Canada supplied Britain with urgently needed food, weapons, and war materials by naval [[convoy]]s and [[airlift]]s, as well as pilots and planes who fought in the [[Battle of Britain]] and [[the Blitz]]. During the Battle of Britain between 88 and 112 Canadian pilots served in the RAF,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/en/battle-britain/history.page|title=History|date= 24 June 2014}}</ref> most had come to Britain on their own initiative. For political necessity an "all Canadian" [[No. 242 Squadron RAF|squadron]] was formed under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan at the start of the war and the Squadron served in the Battle of France. They were later joined by [[No. 401 Squadron RCAF|No. 1 Squadron RCAF]] in June 1940 during the Battle for Britain and they were in "the thick" of fighting in August, by the end of the battle in October 1940, 23 Canadian pilots had been killed.<ref>Bungay, Stephen, '' The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain'' Aurum Press Ltd, 2009 {{ISBN|978-1845134815}}</ref> Squadrons of the RCAF and individual Canadian pilots flying with the British RAF fought with distinction in [[Supermarine Spitfire|Spitfire]] and [[Hawker Hurricane|Hurricane]] fighters during the [[Battle of Britain]]. By 1 January 1943, there were enough RCAF bombers and crews in Britain to form [[No. 6 Group RCAF|No. 6 Group]], one of eight bomber groups within [[RAF Bomber Command]]. If the planned German [[Operation Sealion|invasion of Britain]] had taken place in 1941, units of the formation later known as [[I Canadian Corps]] were already deployed between the [[English Channel]] and London to meet them.
 
[[File:HMCS COBALT leaving Hvalfjord. From HMS Victorious. 16 and 17 November 1941, at Hvalfjord, Iceland. IWM A6403.jpg|thumb|{{HMCS|Cobalt|K124|6}} near [[Hvalfjörður]], [[Iceland]]. Fearing the loss of a land link to the [[British Isles]], Canada occupied Iceland following the British [[invasion of Iceland]]. in June 1940.]]
 
[[File:HMCS COBALT leaving Hvalfjord. From HMS Victorious. 16 and 17 November 1941, at Hvalfjord, Iceland. IWM A6403.jpg|thumb|{{HMCS|Cobalt|K124|6}} near [[Hvalfjörður]], [[Iceland]]. Fearing the loss of a land link to the [[British Isles]], Canada occupied Iceland following the British [[invasion of Iceland]]. in June 1940.]]
 
After France's surrender Britain told Canada that a German invasion of North America was not impossible, and that Canadians needed to plan accordingly. From June 1940 Canada viewed defending itself as important as aiding Britain, perhaps slightly more so. Canadian troops were sent to the defence of the colony of Newfoundland, on Canada's east coast, the closest point in North America to Germany. Fearing the loss of a land link to the British Isles, Canada was requested to also occupy Iceland, which it did from June 1940 to the spring of 1941, following the initial British invasion.{{r|stacey1970}} Canada also produced military equipment using American methods and tooling. Cost was no longer an issue; on 24 June King's government presented the first $1 billion budget in Canadian history. It included $700 million in war expenses compared to $126 million in the 1939–1940 fiscal year; however, due to the war, the overall economy was the strongest in Canadian history. With opposition support the [[National Resources Mobilization Act]] began conscription. Drafted soldiers were for use only in North America unless they volunteered, avoiding the issue that caused the 1917 crisis. (When [[Mayor of Montreal]] [[Camilien Houde]] nonetheless opposed conscription in August 1940, he was arrested and sent to an [[internment camp]].){{r|dean194010}}{{r|stacey1970}}{{rp|32–33}}
 
After France's surrender Britain told Canada that a German invasion of North America was not impossible, and that Canadians needed to plan accordingly. From June 1940 Canada viewed defending itself as important as aiding Britain, perhaps slightly more so. Canadian troops were sent to the defence of the colony of Newfoundland, on Canada's east coast, the closest point in North America to Germany. Fearing the loss of a land link to the British Isles, Canada was requested to also occupy Iceland, which it did from June 1940 to the spring of 1941, following the initial British invasion.{{r|stacey1970}} Canada also produced military equipment using American methods and tooling. Cost was no longer an issue; on 24 June King's government presented the first $1 billion budget in Canadian history. It included $700 million in war expenses compared to $126 million in the 1939–1940 fiscal year; however, due to the war, the overall economy was the strongest in Canadian history. With opposition support the [[National Resources Mobilization Act]] began conscription. Drafted soldiers were for use only in North America unless they volunteered, avoiding the issue that caused the 1917 crisis. (When [[Mayor of Montreal]] [[Camilien Houde]] nonetheless opposed conscription in August 1940, he was arrested and sent to an [[internment camp]].){{r|dean194010}}{{r|stacey1970}}{{rp|32–33}}

2018–19 Superliga season

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Round 7

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}}
 
}}
   
;; Semifinals
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===Semifinals===
 
The semi-finals will be held in 2019.
 
The semi-finals will be held in 2019.
 
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;; Third / Fourth place final
 
;; Third / Fourth place final
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;; First / Second place final
 
;; First / Second place final

User:DePiep/sandbox

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Heat of vaporization, liquification and sublimation needed

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| id=data | Article
 
| id=data | Article
| id=fus | [[Enthalpy_of_fusion]]
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| id=fus | [[Enthalpy of fusion]]
| id=vap | [[Enthalpy_of_vaporization]]
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| id=vap | [[Enthalpy of vaporization]]
| id=sublim | [[Enthalpy_of_sublimation]]
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| id=sublim | [[Enthalpy of sublimation]]
 
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User talk:MohitS15

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Speedy deletion nomination of User:Hridyam Heart Care/Dr. Gaurav Singhal

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If you believe this block was made in error, you may [[WP:Appealing a block|appeal this block]] by adding the text <!-- Copy the text as it appears on your page, not as it appears in this edit area. Do not include the "tlx" code. -->{{tlx|unblock|Your reason here}} at the bottom of your talk page, but you should read the [[WP:Guide to appealing blocks|guide to appealing blocks]] first. </div>[[Category:Wikipedians who are indefinitely blocked for promotional user names|{{PAGENAME}}]]{{z17}}<!-- Template:Uw-spamublock --> -- [[User:Edgar181|Ed]] ([[User talk:Edgar181|Edgar181]]) 15:04, 7 January 2019 (UTC)
 
If you believe this block was made in error, you may [[WP:Appealing a block|appeal this block]] by adding the text <!-- Copy the text as it appears on your page, not as it appears in this edit area. Do not include the "tlx" code. -->{{tlx|unblock|Your reason here}} at the bottom of your talk page, but you should read the [[WP:Guide to appealing blocks|guide to appealing blocks]] first. </div>[[Category:Wikipedians who are indefinitely blocked for promotional user names|{{PAGENAME}}]]{{z17}}<!-- Template:Uw-spamublock --> -- [[User:Edgar181|Ed]] ([[User talk:Edgar181|Edgar181]]) 15:04, 7 January 2019 (UTC)
 
{{unblock-spamun | MohitS15 | I can understand that my account has blocked due to my username. I am requesting to unblock me, I do not repeat this kind of error on wikipages and give me permission to contribute in the wikipedia database[[User:Hridyam Heart Care|Hridyam Heart Care]] ([[User talk:Hridyam Heart Care#top|talk]]) 07:05, 8 January 2019 (UTC)}}
 
{{unblock-spamun | MohitS15 | I can understand that my account has blocked due to my username. I am requesting to unblock me, I do not repeat this kind of error on wikipages and give me permission to contribute in the wikipedia database[[User:Hridyam Heart Care|Hridyam Heart Care]] ([[User talk:Hridyam Heart Care#top|talk]]) 07:05, 8 January 2019 (UTC)}}
  +
*I have globally renamed Hridyam Heart Care to MohitS15, and someone else will review your unblock request. [[User:Boing! said Zebedee|Boing! said Zebedee]] ([[User talk:Boing! said Zebedee|talk]]) 08:43, 8 January 2019 (UTC)

User talk:68.119.239.4

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

warning 2

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==January 2019==
 
==January 2019==
 
[[File:Information.svg|25px|alt=Information icon]] Hello, I'm [[User:Horst Hof|Horst Hof]]. I wanted to let you know that one or more of [[Special:Contributions/68.119.239.4|your recent contributions]] have been undone because they did not appear constructive. If you would like to experiment, please use the [[WP:sandbox|sandbox]]. If you have any questions, you can ask for assistance at the [[Wikipedia:Help desk|Help Desk]]. Thanks.<!-- Template:uw-vandalism1 --> [[User:Horst Hof|Horst Hof]] ([[User talk:Horst Hof|talk]]) 07:39, 8 January 2019 (UTC)
 
[[File:Information.svg|25px|alt=Information icon]] Hello, I'm [[User:Horst Hof|Horst Hof]]. I wanted to let you know that one or more of [[Special:Contributions/68.119.239.4|your recent contributions]] have been undone because they did not appear constructive. If you would like to experiment, please use the [[WP:sandbox|sandbox]]. If you have any questions, you can ask for assistance at the [[Wikipedia:Help desk|Help Desk]]. Thanks.<!-- Template:uw-vandalism1 --> [[User:Horst Hof|Horst Hof]] ([[User talk:Horst Hof|talk]]) 07:39, 8 January 2019 (UTC)
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[[File:Information orange.svg|25px|alt=Information icon]] Please refrain from making unconstructive edits to Wikipedia. Your edits appear to constitute [[Wikipedia:Vandalism|vandalism]] and have been [[Help:Reverting|reverted]]. If you would like to experiment, please use the [[Wikipedia:Sandbox|sandbox]]. Repeated vandalism may result in the [[Wikipedia:Blocking policy|loss of editing privileges]]. Thank you.<!-- Template:uw-vandalism2 -->

Electoral results for the Division of Capricornia

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Members

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| {{Australian party style|Liberal National }}|&nbsp;
 
| {{Australian party style|Liberal National }}|&nbsp;
 
| [[Michelle Landry]]
 
| [[Michelle Landry]]
| [[Liberal National Party of Queensland|Liberal]]
+
| [[Liberal National Party of Queensland|Liberal National]]
 
| [[Australian federal election, 2013|2013]]–present
 
| [[Australian federal election, 2013|2013]]–present
 
|}
 
|}

NK Istra 1961

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

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'''Nogometni Klub Istra 1961''' ({{lang-en|Istra 1961 Football Club}}), commonly referred to as '''NK Istra 1961''' or simply '''Istra 1961''', is a [[Association football|football]] club from [[Pula]], [[Istria]], Croatia, currently playing in the [[Prva HNL|Croatian First Division]].
 
'''Nogometni Klub Istra 1961''' ({{lang-en|Istra 1961 Football Club}}), commonly referred to as '''NK Istra 1961''' or simply '''Istra 1961''', is a [[Association football|football]] club from [[Pula]], [[Istria]], Croatia, currently playing in the [[Prva HNL|Croatian First Division]].
   
The football club ''NK Uljanik'' from which the club originates was founded in 1948. In 1961, it merged with another local club, ''NK Pula'', to form ''[[NK Istra]]''. For this reason, 1961 is occasionally considered as the club's founding year. The greatest club success was in the 2002–03 season when they finished runners-up in the [[Croatian Football Cup|Croatian Cup]], losing to [[Hajduk Split]] 4–1 on [[aggregate score|aggregate]]. In the 2004–05 season, the club changed its name into ''NK Pula 1856'', because 1856 was the year that the [[Austro-Hungarian Empire]] made Pula the port of its arsenal and the shipyard [[Uljanik]] was opened. Also in the same year, it competed in the [[Prva HNL|Prva Liga]] for the first time. In 2005, it was renamed again to ''NK Pula Staro Češko'' due to a sponsorship contract with the brewery Daruvarska pivovara (Staro Češko is a beer brand). Just one year later, the name was once again changed, this time to ''NK Pula''. Again, just a year later in the middle of 2007, the name was changed for the fifth time in as many years, to ''NK Istra 1961''. The change of name came after an ultimatum from the local fans ''Demons'' who said the club would have their support only if the club changed its name and club colours to the traditional city colours (yellow and green). After renaming club was sold in 2011 to a Russian who achieved promotion for the club and sold it in 2015.
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The football club ''NK Uljanik'' from which the club originates was founded in 1948. In 1961, it merged with another local club, ''NK Pula'', to form ''[[NK Istra]]''. For this reason, 1961 is occasionally considered as the club's founding year. The greatest club success was in the 2002–03 season when they finished runners-up in the [[Croatian Football Cup|Croatian Cup]], losing to [[Hajduk Split]] 4–1 on [[aggregate score|aggregate]]. In the 2004–05 season, the club changed its name into ''NK Pula 1856'', because 1856 was the year that the [[Austro-Hungarian Empire]] made Pula the port of its arsenal and the shipyard [[Uljanik]] was opened. Also in the same year, it competed in the [[Prva HNL|Prva Liga]] for the first time. In 2005, it was renamed again to ''NK Pula Staro Češko'' due to a sponsorship contract with the brewery Daruvarska pivovara (Staro Češko is a beer brand). Just one year later, the name was once again changed, this time to ''NK Pula''. Again, just a year later in the middle of 2007, the name was changed for the fifth time in as many years, to ''NK Istra 1961''. The change of name came after an ultimatum from the local fans ''Demons'' who said the club would have their support only if the club changed its name and club colours to the traditional city colours (yellow and green). After renaming club was sold in 2011 to a Russian who achieved promotion for the club and sold it in 2015. In Summer 2018 Basque consortium Baskonia acquired the majority share package and became the owner of NK Istra 1961.
   
 
Its crest features the city's [[Pula Arena|Roman Arena in Pula]], as well as the old team crest.
 
Its crest features the city's [[Pula Arena|Roman Arena in Pula]], as well as the old team crest.

User:Sg corp

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

User account Sg corp was created

User:NintendoGeek/sandbox

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Voting history

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User:Huz080

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

User account Huz080 was created

List of political action committees

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* [[Project Vote]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[Project Vote]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[Public Leadership Institute]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[Public Leadership Institute]] - Washington, DC
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* [[Progressive Foundation]]-Washington, DC
 
* [[Resistance Dashboard]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[Resistance Dashboard]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[Roosevelt Institute]] - New York, NY
 
* [[Roosevelt Institute]] - New York, NY
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* [[Save Our Republic]]Action-Austin & DC
 
* [[She Should Run]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[She Should Run]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[StampOut]] - Washington, DC
 
* [[StampOut]] - Washington, DC

List of VietJet Air destinations

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Destinations

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|[[Yangon]]||Myanmar||align=center|RGN||align=center|VYYY||[[Yangon International Airport]]||align=center|
 
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|[[Yangyang]]||South Korea||align=center|YNY||align=center|RKNY||[[Yangyang International Airport]]||
 
|[[Yangyang]]||South Korea||align=center|YNY||align=center|RKNY||[[Yangyang International Airport]]||
 
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User:Lee Vilenski

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added Category:Wikipedian cue sports players using HotCat

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[[Category:Pro Wrestling articles written in Kayfabe]]
 
[[Category:Pro Wrestling articles written in Kayfabe]]
 
[[Category:Wikipedians interested in cue sports]]
 
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[[Category:Wikipedian cue sports players]]

South Africa national football team

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External links: navboxes

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{{Football in South Africa}}
 
{{Football in South Africa}}
{{International Football}}
 
 
{{CAF teams}}
 
{{CAF teams}}
{{Africa Cup of Nations Winners}}
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{{Africa Cup of Nations winners}}
 
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{{2013 Africa Cup of Nations finalists}}
 
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{{South Africa NFT results}}
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{{South Africa national football team results}}
{{National Sports Teams of South Africa}}
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{{National sports teams of South Africa}}
   
 
[[Category:South Africa national football team| ]]
 
[[Category:South Africa national football team| ]]

Information Broadcast Unlimited

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Television Stations

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| [[Malaybalay, Bukidnon]]
 
| [[Malaybalay, Bukidnon]]
 
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| UNTV-46 Mati / Davao
 
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| DX__-TV
 
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| TV-46

User:Riandilim

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

User account Riandilim was created

St Mary's College, Dublin

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'''Saint Mary's College C.S.Sp. (Congregatio Sancti Spiritus)''' is an independent boys' primary & secondary school run by the [[Holy Ghost Fathers|Congregation of the Holy Spirit]] and located in [[Rathmines]], [[County Dublin]], [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]]. The school was founded in 1890, closed in 1916, and then reopened in 1926.
 
'''Saint Mary's College C.S.Sp. (Congregatio Sancti Spiritus)''' is an independent boys' primary & secondary school run by the [[Holy Ghost Fathers|Congregation of the Holy Spirit]] and located in [[Rathmines]], [[County Dublin]], [[Republic of Ireland|Ireland]]. The school was founded in 1890, closed in 1916, and then reopened in 1926.
The school colours are blue and white. The Senior School Principal is Denis Murphy and Deputy Principal is Bari Lenirt. The Junior School Principal is Mary O'Donnell and Deputy Principal is Judith Keane.
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The school colours are blue and white. The Senior School Principal is Denis Murphy and Deputy Principal is Lari Benirt. The Junior School Principal is Mary O'Donnell and Deputy Principal is Judith Keane.
   
 
==Notable Past Pupils==
 
==Notable Past Pupils==

Pinoy Big Brother: Otso

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Housemates

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| [[Bohol]]

User:Eyvye

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

User account Eyvye was created

Intermission

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Indian cinema: Reference edited with ProveIt

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=== Indian cinema ===
 
=== Indian cinema ===
Despite the phasing out of intermissions in the West, they have remained prevalent in India, and especially with [[Bollywood]] films. There is a mass reluctance to abolish intermissions as they bring a large revenue to cinemas through customers buying snacks during these periods. Indian films are also typically longer compared to films from other parts of the world. In 2011, a Bollywood film, ''[[Dhobi Ghat (film)|Dhobi Ghat]]'', was released without an intermission and was cited as a first in Indian cinema. Forced intermissions are common during screenings of western films in India.<ref>{{cite web|last=Sharma|title=Do we need the intermission?|url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-01-21/news-interviews/28369961_1_interval-bollywood-movies-hindi-movies|publisher=THE TIMES OF INDIA|accessdate=9 August 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Steph|title=Intermission|url=http://www.20yearshence.com/intermission/|accessdate=9 August 2012}}</ref>
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Despite the phasing out of intermissions in the West, they have remained prevalent in India, and especially with [[Bollywood]] films. There is a mass reluctance to abolish intermissions as they bring a large revenue to cinemas through customers buying snacks during these periods. Indian films are also typically longer compared to films from other parts of the world. In 2011, a Bollywood film, ''[[Dhobi Ghat (film)|Dhobi Ghat]]'', was released without an intermission and was cited as a first in Indian cinema. Forced intermissions are common during screenings of western films in India.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/hindi/bollywood/news/Do-we-need-the-intermission/articleshow/7326530.cms |title=Do we need the intermission? |last=Sharma |first=Garima |date=21 January 2011 |work=[[The Times of India]] |access-date=9 August 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Steph|title=Intermission|url=http://www.20yearshence.com/intermission/|accessdate=9 August 2012}}</ref>
   
 
Bollywood films shown in cinemas in the [[United Kingdom]] also commonly include intermissions.<ref>{{cite web|title=Free Movies UK|url=http://www.fmuk.org.uk/forum/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=17195&p=208115|accessdate=9 August 2012}}</ref> Many Bollywood films released on DVD include the "intermission" card for cinematic screening.<ref>{{cite web|last=Blase|title=Music paste up: MIA and terrifying things to do with cars, Clean Bandit provide some local sauce, and the dance film season is upon us|url=http://www.thefword.org.uk/blog/2012/04/music_paste_up_10|accessdate=9 August 2012}}</ref>
 
Bollywood films shown in cinemas in the [[United Kingdom]] also commonly include intermissions.<ref>{{cite web|title=Free Movies UK|url=http://www.fmuk.org.uk/forum/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=17195&p=208115|accessdate=9 August 2012}}</ref> Many Bollywood films released on DVD include the "intermission" card for cinematic screening.<ref>{{cite web|last=Blase|title=Music paste up: MIA and terrifying things to do with cars, Clean Bandit provide some local sauce, and the dance film season is upon us|url=http://www.thefword.org.uk/blog/2012/04/music_paste_up_10|accessdate=9 August 2012}}</ref>

Mexico–United States border

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Geography: minor tidy up

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The Mexico–United States border extends {{convert|3,145|km|mi|sp=us}}, in addition to the maritime boundaries of {{convert|29|km|mi|sp=us}} in the Pacific Ocean and {{convert|19|km|mi|sp=us}} in the Gulf of Mexico.<ref name="1970BT">{{cite web|url=http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/bi-51757.pdf| accessdate= December 7, 2014|title=Treaty to Resolve Pending Boundary Differences and Maintain the Rio Grande and Colorado River as the International Boundary between the United States of America and México|date=November 23, 1970 }}</ref><ref name=ssrn/> According to the [[International Boundary and Water Commission]],<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.ibwc.gov/About_Us/about_us.html |title=Archived copy |access-date=January 25, 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180504194528/https://www.ibwc.gov/About_Us/About_Us.html |archive-date=May 4, 2018 |dead-url=yes |df=mdy-all }}</ref> the continental border follows the middle of the Rio Grande—according to the 1848 [[Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]] between the two nations, "along the deepest channel" (also known as the [[thalweg]])—from its mouth on the [[Gulf of Mexico]] a distance of {{convert|2,020|km|mi|sp=us}} to a point just upstream of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ibwc.gov/Files/US-Mx_Boundary_Map.pdf |title=United States Section Directive |accessdate=November 11, 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111015035847/http://ibwc.gov/Files/US-Mx_Boundary_Map.pdf |archivedate=October 15, 2011 |df=mdy }}</ref> It then follows an alignment westward overland and it is marked by monuments for a distance of {{convert|859|km|mi|sp=us}} to the [[Colorado River]], when it reaches its highest elevation at the intersection with the [[Continental Divide of the Americas|Continental Divide]]. It then follows the middle of that river toward the north with a distance of {{convert|39|km|mi|sp=us}}, and ultimately follows an alignment overland toward the west and marked by monuments with a distance of {{convert|227|km|mi|sp=us}} to the [[Pacific Ocean]].
 
The Mexico–United States border extends {{convert|3,145|km|mi|sp=us}}, in addition to the maritime boundaries of {{convert|29|km|mi|sp=us}} in the Pacific Ocean and {{convert|19|km|mi|sp=us}} in the Gulf of Mexico.<ref name="1970BT">{{cite web|url=http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/bi-51757.pdf| accessdate= December 7, 2014|title=Treaty to Resolve Pending Boundary Differences and Maintain the Rio Grande and Colorado River as the International Boundary between the United States of America and México|date=November 23, 1970 }}</ref><ref name=ssrn/> According to the [[International Boundary and Water Commission]],<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.ibwc.gov/About_Us/about_us.html |title=Archived copy |access-date=January 25, 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180504194528/https://www.ibwc.gov/About_Us/About_Us.html |archive-date=May 4, 2018 |dead-url=yes |df=mdy-all }}</ref> the continental border follows the middle of the Rio Grande—according to the 1848 [[Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]] between the two nations, "along the deepest channel" (also known as the [[thalweg]])—from its mouth on the [[Gulf of Mexico]] a distance of {{convert|2,020|km|mi|sp=us}} to a point just upstream of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ibwc.gov/Files/US-Mx_Boundary_Map.pdf |title=United States Section Directive |accessdate=November 11, 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111015035847/http://ibwc.gov/Files/US-Mx_Boundary_Map.pdf |archivedate=October 15, 2011 |df=mdy }}</ref> It then follows an alignment westward overland and it is marked by monuments for a distance of {{convert|859|km|mi|sp=us}} to the [[Colorado River]], when it reaches its highest elevation at the intersection with the [[Continental Divide of the Americas|Continental Divide]]. It then follows the middle of that river toward the north with a distance of {{convert|39|km|mi|sp=us}}, and ultimately follows an alignment overland toward the west and marked by monuments with a distance of {{convert|227|km|mi|sp=us}} to the [[Pacific Ocean]].
   
Per the La Paz Agreement,<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/lapazagreement.pdf|format=PDF |title=La Paz Agreement |website=Epa.gov|accessdate=9 April 2018}}</ref> the official "border area" extends "100 kilometers [62.5 miles] on either side of the inland and maritime boundaries" from the Gulf of Mexico west into the Pacific Ocean. There is also a [[Mexico–United States border#100-mile border zone|100-mile Border Zone]].
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Per the La Paz Agreement,<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-09/documents/lapazagreement.pdf|format=PDF |title=La Paz Agreement |website=Epa.gov|accessdate=9 April 2018}}</ref> the official "border area" extends {{convert|100|km|mi|sp=us}} "on either side of the inland and maritime boundaries" from the Gulf of Mexico west into the Pacific Ocean. There is also a [[Mexico–United States border#100-mile border zone|100-mile border zone]].
   
 
The Rio Grande frequently meanders along the Texas–Mexico border. As a result, the United States and Mexico have a treaty by which the Rio Grande is maintained as the border, with new cut-offs and islands being transferred to the other nation as necessary. The [[Boundary Treaty of 1970]] between Mexico and the United States settled all outstanding [[boundary dispute]]s and uncertainties related to the [[Rio Grande]] (Río Bravo del Norte) border.
The region is characterized by deserts, rugged hills, abundant sunshine, and two major rivers—the [[Colorado River|Colorado]] and the [[Rio Grande]] (Río Bravo del Norte).
 
   
 
The region is characterized by deserts, rugged hills, abundant sunshine, and two major rivers—the [[Colorado River|Colorado]] and the [[Rio Grande]] (Río Bravo del Norte).
The Rio Grande frequently meanders along the Texas–Mexico border. As a result, the United States and Mexico have a treaty by which the Rio Grande is maintained as the border, with new cut-offs and islands being transferred to the other nation as necessary. The [[Boundary Treaty of 1970]] between Mexico and the United States settled all outstanding [[boundary dispute]]s and uncertainties related to the [[Rio Grande]] (Río Bravo del Norte) border. Along the border are 23 U.S. counties and 39 Mexican municipalities.
 
   
 
<gallery mode="packed" heights="140px">
 
<gallery mode="packed" heights="140px">
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Three Mexican states border two U.S. states each: Baja California borders California and Arizona; Sonora borders Arizona and New Mexico; and Chihuahua borders New Mexico and Texas. Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, and Coahuila each borders only one U.S. state: Texas.
 
Three Mexican states border two U.S. states each: Baja California borders California and Arizona; Sonora borders Arizona and New Mexico; and Chihuahua borders New Mexico and Texas. Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, and Coahuila each borders only one U.S. state: Texas.
  +
  +
Along the border are 23 U.S. counties and 39 Mexican municipalities.
   
 
===Border crossing checkpoints===
 
===Border crossing checkpoints===
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==== Tijuana-San Ysidro Border ====
 
==== Tijuana-San Ysidro Border ====
  +
[[File:CBP_San_Diego_Operations_-_San_Ysidro_(28555925151).jpg|thumb|''[[San Ysidro Port of Entry]] through vehicle.'']]
[[File:CBP_San_Diego_Operations_-_San_Ysidro_(28555925151).jpg|thumb|''[[San Ysidro Port of Entry]] through vehicle.'']][[Mexico]] and the [[United States]] share the world's most transited border.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.forbes.com/2009/04/03/mexico-texas-economy-business-border_slide.html|title=In Pictures: America's Busiest Border Crossings|last=Bogan|first=Jesse|work=Forbes|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en}}</ref> The [[San Ysidro Port of Entry]] is located in between [[San Ysidro, San Diego|San Ysidro]], California and [[Tijuana]], Baja California. Approximately 50,000 vehicles and 25,000 pedestrians utilize this entry to the United States daily.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.politico.com/magazine/gallery/2017/02/photo-gallery-san-ysidro-california-us-mexico-border-000710?slide=0|title=A Day at the Busiest Border Crossing in the World|website=POLITICO Magazine|language=en|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref> Due to business of this entry port, it has influenced the every day life-style of people that live in these [[border town]]s.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/02/08/world/americas/before-the-wall-life-along-the-us-mexico-border.html|title=Before the Wall: Life Along the U.S.-Mexico Border|last=Ahmed|first=Azam|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en}}</ref>
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The Mexico–United States border is the world's most transited border.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.forbes.com/2009/04/03/mexico-texas-economy-business-border_slide.html|title=In Pictures: America's Busiest Border Crossings|last=Bogan|first=Jesse|work=Forbes|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en}}</ref> The [[San Ysidro Port of Entry]] is located between [[San Ysidro, San Diego|San Ysidro]], California and [[Tijuana]], Baja California. Approximately 50,000 vehicles and 25,000 pedestrians use this entry daily.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.politico.com/magazine/gallery/2017/02/photo-gallery-san-ysidro-california-us-mexico-border-000710?slide=0|title=A Day at the Busiest Border Crossing in the World|website=POLITICO Magazine|language=en|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref> Due to business of this entry port, it has influenced the every day life-style of people that live in these [[border town]]s.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/02/08/world/americas/before-the-wall-life-along-the-us-mexico-border.html|title=Before the Wall: Life Along the U.S.-Mexico Border|last=Ahmed|first=Azam|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en}}</ref>
   
 
===== Health Impact =====
 
===== Health Impact =====
  +
[[File:Tijuana_Border_Traffic.jpg|thumb|''Thousands of cars sit from fifteen minutes to two hours waiting to cross the border<ref name="MESA">{{Cite news|url=http://www.otaymesa.org/border-waiting/|title=Border Wait Times and Border Crossing Statistics - OTAYMESA|last=MESA|first=OTAY|work=OTAYMESA|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-US}}</ref>'']]
[[File:Tijuana_Border_Traffic.jpg|thumb|''Thousands of cars sit from fifteen minutes to two hours waiting to cross the border<ref name="MESA">{{Cite news|url=http://www.otaymesa.org/border-waiting/|title=Border Wait Times and Border Crossing Statistics - OTAYMESA|last=MESA|first=OTAY|work=OTAYMESA|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-US}}</ref>'']] The world's busiest border is having a growing impact on communities on both sides of the border. The average wait time to cross into the United States is approximately an hour just to travel a few miles.<ref name="MESA"/> Having thousands of vehicles transit through the border every day is causing air pollution in [[San Ysidro, San Diego|San Ysidro]] and [[Tijuana]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.voiceofsandiego.org/topics/science-environment/san-ysidro-is-getting-a-clearer-look-at-just-how-polluted-it-is/|title=San Ysidro Is Getting a Clearer Look at Just How Polluted it Is - Voice of San Diego|date=2018-04-23|work=Voice of San Diego|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-US}}</ref> The emission of [[Carbon monoxide poisoning|carbon monoxide (CO)]] and other vehicle related air contaminants have been linked to health complications such as cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, birth outcomes, premature death, obesity, asthma and other respiratory diseases.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.sandag.org/uploads/publicationid/publicationid_1933_18945.pdf|title=Border Health Equity Transportation Study|last=|first=|date=February 27, 2015|website=|access-date=}}</ref> Due to the high levels of traffic collusion and the extended wait times, mental health is also impacted by the border's business, affecting the person's stress levels and aggressive behavior.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.sandag.org/uploads/publicationid/publicationid_1933_18945.pdf|title=Border Health Equity Transportation Study|last=|first=|date=February 27, 2015|website=|access-date=}}</ref>
+
The world's busiest border is having an impact on communities on both sides of the border. The average wait time to cross into the United States is approximately an hour.<ref name="MESA"/> Having thousands of vehicles transit through the border every day is causing air pollution in [[San Ysidro, San Diego|San Ysidro]] and [[Tijuana]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.voiceofsandiego.org/topics/science-environment/san-ysidro-is-getting-a-clearer-look-at-just-how-polluted-it-is/|title=San Ysidro Is Getting a Clearer Look at Just How Polluted it Is - Voice of San Diego|date=2018-04-23|work=Voice of San Diego|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-US}}</ref> The emission of [[Carbon monoxide poisoning|carbon monoxide (CO)]] and other vehicle related air contaminants have been linked to health complications such as cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, birth outcomes, premature death, obesity, asthma and other respiratory diseases.<ref name=sandag>{{Cite web|url=https://www.sandag.org/uploads/publicationid/publicationid_1933_18945.pdf|title=Border Health Equity Transportation Study|last=|first=|date=February 27, 2015|website=|access-date=}}</ref> Due to the high levels of traffic collusion and the extended wait times, mental health is also impacted by the border's business, affecting the person's stress levels and aggressive behavior.<ref name=sandag/>
   
 
===== Socioeconomic Impact =====
 
===== Socioeconomic Impact =====
 
[[File:Border USA Mexico.jpg|thumb|''Capture of both sides of the border, [[Tijuana]] and [[San Diego]].'']]
 
[[File:Border USA Mexico.jpg|thumb|''Capture of both sides of the border, [[Tijuana]] and [[San Diego]].'']]
The San Ysidro border is heavily militarized, separated by three walls, [[United States Border Patrol|border patrol]] agents and [[U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement|ICE]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://foreignpolicy.com/2011/06/24/the-worlds-most-dangerous-borders/|title=The World's Most Dangerous Borders|website=Foreign Policy|language=en|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref> However, this does not stop these two cultures from exchanging art, music, traditions, and language. In San Ysidro, 87.9% of the households speak Spanish.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://statisticalatlas.com/neighborhood/California/San-Diego/San-Ysidro/Languages|title=Languages in San Ysidro, San Diego, California (Neighborhood) - Statistical Atlas|website=statisticalatlas.com|language=en|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref> In Tijuana, a lot of the slang is rooted from English words creating an English-Spanish mix called "[[Spanglish]]." On both sides of the border, the social dynamic among these two major cities is influenced by one another.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.monografias.com/trabajos56/influencias-mexico-norteamerica/influencias-mexico-norteamerica.shtml|title=Las influencias culturales y artísticas entre México del Norte y Norteamérica |first=Roberto |last=Rosique|website=Monografias.com|language=es|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref>
+
The San Ysidro border is heavily militarized, separated by three walls, [[United States Border Patrol|border patrol]] agents and [[U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement|ICE]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://foreignpolicy.com/2011/06/24/the-worlds-most-dangerous-borders/|title=The World's Most Dangerous Borders|website=Foreign Policy|language=en|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref>
   
Tijuana is the next target for San Diegan developers due to the fast-growing city, its lower cost of living, cheap prices and proximity to San Diego.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.expatistan.com/cost-of-living/tijuana|title=Cost of Living in Tijuana, Mexico. Jul 2018 prices in Tijuana.|website=Expatistan, cost of living comparisons|language=en|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref> While this would benefit the tourist aspect of the city, it is damaging to low-income residents that will no longer be able to afford the cost of living in Tijuana.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/karlazabludovsky/tijuana-wants-you-to-forget-everything-you-know-about-it|title=Tijuana Wants You To Forget Everything You Know About It|work=BuzzFeed News|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en}}</ref> Tijuana is home to many deportees from the United States, many who have lost everything and do not have an income to rely on and are now in a new city in which they have to quickly adapt in order to survive.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/inequality/2017/dec/12/mexico-deportation-tijuana-trump-border|title=This is what the hours after being deported look like|last=Lakhani|first=Nina|date=2017-12-12|work=The Guardian|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}}</ref> San Diego developers would bring many benefits to Tijuana but deportees and the poor run the risk of being impacted by the [[gentrification]] of Tijuana.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.voiceofsandiego.org/border/small-san-diego-developers-see-a-new-frontier-in-tijuana/|title=San Diego Developers See a New Frontier in Tijuana|date=2015-11-30|work=Voice of San Diego|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-US}}</ref>
+
Tijuana is the next target for San Diegan developers due to the fast-growing city, its lower cost of living, cheap prices and proximity to San Diego.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.expatistan.com/cost-of-living/tijuana|title=Cost of Living in Tijuana, Mexico. Jul 2018 prices in Tijuana.|website=Expatistan, cost of living comparisons|language=en|access-date=2018-07-27}}</ref> While this would benefit the tourist aspect of the city, it is damaging to low-income residents that will no longer be able to afford the cost of living in Tijuana.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/karlazabludovsky/tijuana-wants-you-to-forget-everything-you-know-about-it|title=Tijuana Wants You To Forget Everything You Know About It|work=BuzzFeed News|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en}}</ref> Tijuana is home to many deportees from the United States, many who have lost everything and do not have an income to rely on and are now in a new city in which they have to quickly adapt in order to survive.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/inequality/2017/dec/12/mexico-deportation-tijuana-trump-border|title=This is what the hours after being deported look like|last=Lakhani|first=Nina|date=2017-12-12|work=The Guardian|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}}</ref> San Diego developers would bring many benefits to Tijuana but deportees and the poor run the risk of being impacted by the [[gentrification]] of Tijuana.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.voiceofsandiego.org/border/small-san-diego-developers-see-a-new-frontier-in-tijuana/|title=San Diego Developers See a New Frontier in Tijuana|date=2015-11-30|work=Voice of San Diego|access-date=2018-07-27|language=en-US}}</ref>
   
 
==History==
 
==History==

Tajiks

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Tajiks in Afghanistan are not called Persians, thus cannot be considered "Eastern Persian". The correct term for someone from ancient khorasan, is "Khorasani".,

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
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'''Tajiks''' ({{lang-fa|تاجيک}}: ''Tājīk'', {{lang-tg|Тоҷик}}) are a [[Persian language|Persian]]-speaking<ref name="EofI-Tadjik">{{cite encyclopedia |author1=C.E. Bosworth |author2=B.G. Fragner |title = TĀ<u>DJ</u>ĪK| encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]| edition = CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0| publisher = Koninklijke Brill NV| location = Leiden, The Netherlands| year = 1999}}</ref> [[Iranian people|Iranian]] ethnic group native to [[Afghanistan]], [[Tajikistan]], and [[Uzbekistan]]. Tajiks are the largest [[ethnicity]] in Tajikistan, and the second largest in Afghanistan which constitutes over half of the global Tajik population. They speak varieties of Persian, a [[Western Iranian language]]. In Tajikistan, since the 1939 Soviet census, its small [[Pamiris|Pamiri]] and [[Yaghnobi people|Yaghnobi]] ethnic groups are included as Tajiks.<ref name="suny" /> In China, the term is used to refer to its Pamiri ethnic groups, the [[Tajiks of Xinjiang]], who speak the [[Eastern Iranian languages|Eastern Iranian]] [[Pamiri languages]].<ref name=arlund1>{{cite book |title= An Acoustic, Historical, And Developmental Analysis Of Sarikol Tajik Diphthongs. PhD Dissertation |last=Arlund |first= Pamela S. |year=2006 |publisher= The University of Texas at Arlington |location= |isbn= |page=191 |pages= |url= http://repositories.tdl.org/tdl/handle/10106/438 |accessdate=}}</ref><ref name=felmy>{{cite book |title=The voice of the nightingale: a personal account of the Wakhi culture in Hunza |last=Felmy |first=Sabine |year=1996 |publisher= [[Oxford University Press]] |location= [[Karachi]] |isbn= 0-19-577599-6 |page=4 |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=gTtuAAAAMAAJ&q}}</ref> In Afghanistan, the Pamiris are counted as a separate ethnic group.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Minahan|first1=James B.|title=Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia|date=10 Feb 2014|publisher=ABC-CLIO}}</ref>
 
'''Tajiks''' ({{lang-fa|تاجيک}}: ''Tājīk'', {{lang-tg|Тоҷик}}) are a [[Persian language|Persian]]-speaking<ref name="EofI-Tadjik">{{cite encyclopedia |author1=C.E. Bosworth |author2=B.G. Fragner |title = TĀ<u>DJ</u>ĪK| encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]| edition = CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0| publisher = Koninklijke Brill NV| location = Leiden, The Netherlands| year = 1999}}</ref> [[Iranian people|Iranian]] ethnic group native to [[Afghanistan]], [[Tajikistan]], and [[Uzbekistan]]. Tajiks are the largest [[ethnicity]] in Tajikistan, and the second largest in Afghanistan which constitutes over half of the global Tajik population. They speak varieties of Persian, a [[Western Iranian language]]. In Tajikistan, since the 1939 Soviet census, its small [[Pamiris|Pamiri]] and [[Yaghnobi people|Yaghnobi]] ethnic groups are included as Tajiks.<ref name="suny" /> In China, the term is used to refer to its Pamiri ethnic groups, the [[Tajiks of Xinjiang]], who speak the [[Eastern Iranian languages|Eastern Iranian]] [[Pamiri languages]].<ref name=arlund1>{{cite book |title= An Acoustic, Historical, And Developmental Analysis Of Sarikol Tajik Diphthongs. PhD Dissertation |last=Arlund |first= Pamela S. |year=2006 |publisher= The University of Texas at Arlington |location= |isbn= |page=191 |pages= |url= http://repositories.tdl.org/tdl/handle/10106/438 |accessdate=}}</ref><ref name=felmy>{{cite book |title=The voice of the nightingale: a personal account of the Wakhi culture in Hunza |last=Felmy |first=Sabine |year=1996 |publisher= [[Oxford University Press]] |location= [[Karachi]] |isbn= 0-19-577599-6 |page=4 |url= https://books.google.com/books?id=gTtuAAAAMAAJ&q}}</ref> In Afghanistan, the Pamiris are counted as a separate ethnic group.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Minahan|first1=James B.|title=Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia|date=10 Feb 2014|publisher=ABC-CLIO}}</ref>
   
As a self-designation, the literary [[Persian language|New Persian]] term ''Tajik'', which originally had some previous pejorative usage as a label for eastern [[Persian peoples|Persians]] or [[Iranian peoples|Iranians]],<ref>Perry, John, "Tajik i. The Ethnonymn: Origins and Application,"Encyclopædia Iranica, Excerpt 1: "In other contexts, Sanskrit tājika (also tāyika) means 'Persian(s),' and in later Indo-Muslim usage, tājik is of course the Turco-Persian word for 'Iranian, Persian'." Excerpt 2: "An intriguing Sogdian occurrence of the adjective tājīgāne (arguably to be pronounced as tāžīgāne) in a Manichaean hymnal from Turfan, of about the year 1000, may supply the missing link between Middle Persian tāzīg 'Arab' and Turkic/New Persian tāzik, tāžik 'Persian'.". Excerpt 3: "The phonetic forms and socio-historical motivations of the words cited above as deriving or meaning "Tajik" require some discussion. First, it should be understood that the Persian words (a) tāzi 'Arabian, Arabic, Arab' and (b) tāzik, tāžik, tājik 'Persian, Iranian, Tajik,' though originating as doublets (or cognates) of the same word, are completely separate in form and meaning throughout New Persian (and Islamic Turkic and Indic) literature.", online edition, 2009, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/tajik-i-the-ethnonym-origins-and-application (accessed on 20 July 2009)</ref> has become acceptable during the last several decades, particularly as a result of [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] administration in Central Asia.<ref name="EofI-Tadjik" /> Alternative names for the Tajiks are '''[[Greater Khorasan|Eastern Persian]]''',<ref>Perry, John, "Tajik i. The Ethnonymn: Origins and Application,"Encyclopædia Iranica, Excerpt 1: "In other contexts, Sanskrit tājika (also tāyika) means 'Persian(s),' and in later Indo-Muslim usage, tājik is of course the Turco-Persian word for 'Iranian, Persian'." Excerpt 2: "An intriguing Sogdian occurrence of the adjective tājīgāne (arguably to be pronounced as tāžīgāne) in a Manichaean hymnal from Turfan, of about the year 1000, may supply the missing link between Middle Persian tāzīg 'Arab' and Turkic/New Persian tāzik, tāžik 'Persian'." . Excerpt 3: "The phonetic forms and socio-historical motivations of the words cited above as deriving or meaning "Tajik" require some discussion. First, it should be understood that the Persian words (a) tāzi 'Arabian, Arabic, Arab' and (b) tāzik, tāžik, tājik 'Persian, Iranian, Tajik,' though originating as doublets (or cognates) of the same word, are completely separate in form and meaning throughout New Persian (and Islamic Turkic and Indic) literature.", online edition, 2009, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/tajik-i-the-ethnonym-origins-and-application (accessed on 20 July 2009)</ref><ref>B. A. Litvinsky, Ahmad Hasan Dani (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Age of Achievement, A.D. 750 to the end of the 15th-century. Excerpt: "...they were the basis for the emergence and gradual consolidation of what became an Eastern Persian-Tajik ethnic identity." pp. 101. UNESCO. {{ISBN|9789231032110}}.</ref> '''[[Farsiwan|Fārsīwān]]''' (Persian-speaker), and '''[[Dehqan|Dīhgān]]''' (cf. {{lang-tg|Деҳқон}}) which translates to "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and was later used to describe a class of land-owning magnates as "[[Persian peoples|Persian]] of noble blood" in contrast to Arabs, Turks and Romans during the [[Sassanid]] and early Islamic period.<ref name=EofI-Afghanistan>{{cite encyclopedia |author1=M. Longworth Dames |author2=G. Morgenstierne |author3=R. Ghirshman |last-author-amp=yes |title = AF<u>GH</u>ĀNISTĀN| encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]| edition = CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0| publisher = Koninklijke Brill NV| location = Leiden, The Netherlands| year = 1999}}</ref><ref name="iranica-dehqan">[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dehqan Aḥmad Tafażżolī,"DEHQĀN" at Encyclopaedia Iranica]</ref>
+
As a self-designation, the literary [[Persian language|New Persian]] term ''Tajik'', which originally had some previous pejorative usage as a label for eastern [[Persian peoples|Persians]] or [[Iranian peoples|Iranians]],<ref>Perry, John, "Tajik i. The Ethnonymn: Origins and Application,"Encyclopædia Iranica, Excerpt 1: "In other contexts, Sanskrit tājika (also tāyika) means 'Persian(s),' and in later Indo-Muslim usage, tājik is of course the Turco-Persian word for 'Iranian, Persian'." Excerpt 2: "An intriguing Sogdian occurrence of the adjective tājīgāne (arguably to be pronounced as tāžīgāne) in a Manichaean hymnal from Turfan, of about the year 1000, may supply the missing link between Middle Persian tāzīg 'Arab' and Turkic/New Persian tāzik, tāžik 'Persian'.". Excerpt 3: "The phonetic forms and socio-historical motivations of the words cited above as deriving or meaning "Tajik" require some discussion. First, it should be understood that the Persian words (a) tāzi 'Arabian, Arabic, Arab' and (b) tāzik, tāžik, tājik 'Persian, Iranian, Tajik,' though originating as doublets (or cognates) of the same word, are completely separate in form and meaning throughout New Persian (and Islamic Turkic and Indic) literature.", online edition, 2009, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/tajik-i-the-ethnonym-origins-and-application (accessed on 20 July 2009)</ref> has become acceptable during the last several decades, particularly as a result of [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] administration in Central Asia.<ref name="EofI-Tadjik" /> Alternative names for the Tajiks are '''[[Greater Khorasan|Khorasani]]''',<ref>Perry, John, "Tajik i. The Ethnonymn: Origins and Application,"Encyclopædia Iranica, Excerpt 1: "In other contexts, Sanskrit tājika (also tāyika) means 'Persian(s),' and in later Indo-Muslim usage, tājik is of course the Turco-Persian word for 'Iranian, Persian'." Excerpt 2: "An intriguing Sogdian occurrence of the adjective tājīgāne (arguably to be pronounced as tāžīgāne) in a Manichaean hymnal from Turfan, of about the year 1000, may supply the missing link between Middle Persian tāzīg 'Arab' and Turkic/New Persian tāzik, tāžik 'Persian'." . Excerpt 3: "The phonetic forms and socio-historical motivations of the words cited above as deriving or meaning "Tajik" require some discussion. First, it should be understood that the Persian words (a) tāzi 'Arabian, Arabic, Arab' and (b) tāzik, tāžik, tājik 'Persian, Iranian, Tajik,' though originating as doublets (or cognates) of the same word, are completely separate in form and meaning throughout New Persian (and Islamic Turkic and Indic) literature.", online edition, 2009, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/tajik-i-the-ethnonym-origins-and-application (accessed on 20 July 2009)</ref><ref>B. A. Litvinsky, Ahmad Hasan Dani (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Age of Achievement, A.D. 750 to the end of the 15th-century. Excerpt: "...they were the basis for the emergence and gradual consolidation of what became an Eastern Persian-Tajik ethnic identity." pp. 101. UNESCO. {{ISBN|9789231032110}}.</ref> '''[[Farsiwan|Fārsīwān]]''' (Persian-speaker), and '''[[Dehqan|Dīhgān]]''' (cf. {{lang-tg|Деҳқон}}) which translates to "farmer or settled villager", in a wider sense "settled" in contrast to "nomadic" and was later used to describe a class of land-owning magnates as "[[Persian peoples|Persian]] of noble blood" in contrast to Arabs, Turks and Romans during the [[Sassanid]] and early Islamic period.<ref name=EofI-Afghanistan>{{cite encyclopedia |author1=M. Longworth Dames |author2=G. Morgenstierne |author3=R. Ghirshman |last-author-amp=yes |title = AF<u>GH</u>ĀNISTĀN| encyclopedia = [[Encyclopaedia of Islam]]| edition = CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0| publisher = Koninklijke Brill NV| location = Leiden, The Netherlands| year = 1999}}</ref><ref name="iranica-dehqan">[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dehqan Aḥmad Tafażżolī,"DEHQĀN" at Encyclopaedia Iranica]</ref>
   
 
== History ==
 
== History ==

BTS Skytrain

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Stations and lines: Fixed error in current route length.

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
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! Last extension
 
! Last extension
 
|-
 
|-
| {{rint|bangkok|Sukhumvit}} [[Sukhumvit Line]] || align = "center"| 31<ref name="auto">{{cite web|url=http://www.thansettakij.com/2016/07/14/70337|title=BTSสายสีเขียว เชื่อมแบริ่ง -สมุทรปราการ|first=|last=ฐานเศรษฐกิจ|date=14 July 2016|publisher=|accessdate=25 November 2016}}</ref> || {{convert|37.02|km|mi|disp=table}}<ref name="auto"/>
+
| {{rint|bangkok|Sukhumvit}} [[Sukhumvit Line]] || align = "center"| 31<ref name="auto">{{cite web|url=http://www.thansettakij.com/2016/07/14/70337|title=BTSสายสีเขียว เชื่อมแบริ่ง -สมุทรปราการ|first=|last=ฐานเศรษฐกิจ|date=14 July 2016|publisher=|accessdate=25 November 2016}}</ref> || {{convert|34.9|km|mi|disp=table}}<ref name="auto"/>
 
|| [[Mo Chit BTS station|Mo Chit]] ↔ [[Kheha BTS station|Kheha]] || || 1999 || 2018
 
|| [[Mo Chit BTS station|Mo Chit]] ↔ [[Kheha BTS station|Kheha]] || || 1999 || 2018
 
|-
 
|-

Draft:Hybrid Numbers

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

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{{AFC submission|t||ts=20190108083957|u=Mozdemir07|ns=118|demo=}}<!-- Important, do not remove this line before article has been created. -->
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|+Hybrid Multiplication
|-
!width=15|×
!width=15|<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
!width=15|<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
!width=15|<math>\boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
!width=15|<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|-
!<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
|<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|-
!<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{-1}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1-h}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{\varepsilon +i}</math>
|-
!<math>\boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
|<math>\boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1+h}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{0}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{-\varepsilon}</math>
|-
!<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{- \varepsilon -i}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{\varepsilon}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
|}

Hybrid numbers are a generalization of [[complex numbers]] <math>\left(a+\mathbf{i}b, \mathbf{i}^{2}=-1\right) </math>, [[split-complex numbers]] (or "hyperbolic number") <math>\left(a+\mathbf{h}b, \mathbf{h}^{2}=1\right) </math> and [[dual numbers]] <math>\left(a+\mathbf{\varepsilon }b, \mathbf{\varepsilon }^{2}=0\right) </math>. It is a [[Noncommutative ring]]. Complex, hyperbolic and dual numbers are well known two-dimensional number systems. It is well known that, the set of Complex Numbers, Hyperbolic Numbers and Dual numbers are
:<math>
\mathbb{C}=\{\mathbf{z}=x+\mathbf{i}y:\mathbf{i}^{2}=-1,\text{ }x,y\in\mathbb{R}\},
</math>
:<math>
\mathbb{P}=\{\mathbf{z}=x+\mathbf{h}y:\mathbf{h}^{2}=1,\text{ }x,y\in\mathbb{R}\},
</math>
:<math>
\mathbb{D}=\{\mathbf{z}=x+\mathbf{\varepsilon }y:\text{ }\mathbf{\varepsilon}^{2}=0,\text{ }x,y\in\mathbb{R}\},
</math>
respectively.
The [[algebra]] of Hybrid Numbers is a [[noncommutative algebra]] which unifies all three number systems calls them hybrid numbers <ref name="Ozdemir">Özdemir M., Introduction to Hybrid Numbers, Adv. in Applied Clifford Algebras, 28:11, (2018).</ref>.
A hybrid number
:<math>a+\mathbf{i}b+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math>
is a number created with any combination of the complex, hyperbolic and dual numbers satisfying the relation
:<math>\mathbf{ih=-hi=i}+\mathbf{\varepsilon }.</math>
Because these numbers are a composition of dual, complex and hyperbolic numbers, Ozdemir calls them hybrid numbers <ref name="Ozdemir">Özdemir M., Introduction to Hybrid Numbers, Adv. in Applied Clifford Algebras, 28:11, (2018).</ref>. A commutative two-dimensional [[unital algebra]] generated by a 2 by 2 matrix is [[isomorphic]] to either complex, dual or hyperbolic numbers <ref>Lavrentiev M.A., Shabat B.V., Problems of hydrodynamics and their mathematical models. Moscow, Nauka, 416 p., (Russian) (1973).</ref>. Due to the set of hybrid numbers is a two-dimensional commutative algebra spanned by 1 and <math>\mathbf{i}b+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math>, it is isomorphic to one of the complex, dual or hyperbolic numbers.

===== Planar Rotations with Complex, Hyperbolic and Dual Numbers =====
Especially in the last century, a lot of researchers deal with the geometric and physical applications of these numbers. Just as the geometry of the Euclidean plane can be described with complex numbers, the geometry of the Minkowski plane and Galilean plane can be described with hyperbolic numbers. The group of Euclidean rotations [[SO(2)]] is isomorphic to the group [[U(1)]] of unit complex numbers. The geometrical meaning of multiplying by
<math>e^{\mathbf{i}\theta }=\cos \theta +\mathbf{i}\sin \theta</math> means a rotation of the plane. <ref>Yaglom I.M., Complex Numbers in Geometry, Academic Press, (1968).</ref>, <ref>Yaglom I.M., A simple non-Euclidean geometry and its physical basis. Heidelberg Science Library. Springer-Verlag, New York, (1979).</ref>.

The group of [[Indefinite orthogonal group|Lorentzian rotations SO<math>\left( 1,1\right) </math>]] is isomorphic to the group of unit spacelike hyperbolic numbers. This rotation can be viewed as hyperbolic rotation. Thus, multiplying by <math>e^{\mathbf{h}\theta }=\cosh \theta +\mathbf{h}\sinh \theta </math> means a map of hyperbolic numbers into itself which preserves the Lorentzian metric. <ref>Catoni F., Cannata R., Catoni V., Zampetti P., Two-dimensional Hypercomplex number and related trigonometries, Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras, Vol.14, Issue 1, 47-68, (2004). </ref>, <ref>Catoni F., Boccaletti D.,Cannata R., Catoni V., Nichelatti E., and Zampetti P., The Mathematics of Minkowski Space-Time: With an Introduction to Commutative Hypercomplex Numbers, Birkhäuser, Basel, (2008).</ref>,
<ref> Catoni F., Cannata R., Catoni V., Zampetti P.: Hyperbolic trigonometry in two-dimensional space-time geometry. Nuovo Cimento B, 118(5), 475 (2003).</ref>, <ref>Rooney J., On the three types of complex number and planar transformations, Environment and Planning B, Volume 5, pages 89-99, (1978).</ref>
The Galilean rotations can be interpreted with dual numbers. The concept of a rotation in the dual number plane is equivalent to a vertical shear mapping since
<math>\left( 1+x\mathbf{\varepsilon }\right) \left( 1+y\mathbf{\varepsilon }\right) =1+\left( x+y\right) \mathbf{\varepsilon }</math>. The Euler formula for Dual numbers is <math>e^{\mathbf{\varepsilon }\theta }=1+\mathbf{\varepsilon }\theta </math>. Multiplying by <math>e^{\mathbf{\varepsilon \theta }}</math> is a
map of dual numbers into itself which preserves the Galilean metric. This rotation can be named as parabolic rotation <ref>Kisil Vladimir V., Induced Representations and Hypercomplex Numbers, Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras, Vol.23, Issue 2, pp 417--440, (2013)</ref>, <ref>Kisil Vladimir V., Erlangen program at large-2: Inventing a wheel. The parabolic one. Trans. Inst. Math. of the NAS of Ukraine, pages 89--98, (2010).</ref><ref>Kisil Vladimir V., Erlangen program at large-1: Geometry of invariants. SIGMA, Symmetry Integrability Geom. Methods Appl. 6 (076):45, (2010).</ref><ref>Rooney J., Generalised Complex Numbers in Mechanics, Advances on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators, 55-62, (2014).</ref>, <ref>Harkin A. A., Harkin J. B., Geometry of Generalized Complex Numbers, Mathematics Magazine 77(2):118--29 (2004)</ref>, <ref>Fischer I., Dual-Number Methods in Kinematics, Statics and Dynamics. CRC Press, (1999).</ref>, <ref>Borota N. A., Flores E., and Osler T.J., Spacetime numbers the easy way, Mathematics and Computer Education 34: 159-168 (2000).</ref>, <ref>Veldkamp G.R., On the use of dual numbers, vectors and matrices in instantaneous, spatial kinematics, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 141-156, (1976)</ref>.

In abstract algebra, the complex, the hyperbolic and the dual numbers can be described as the quotient of the [[polynomial ring]] <math>\mathbb{R}\left[ x\right] </math> by the [[Ideal (mathematics)|ideal]] generated by the polynomials <math>x^{2}+1,</math>, <math>x^{2}-1</math> and <math>x^{2}</math> respectively. That is,<br>

<math>\mathbb{C}=\mathbb{R}\left[ x\right] /\left\langle x^{2}+1\right\rangle ,\text{ }</math>, <math>\mathbb{P=}\mathbb{R}\left[ x\right] /\left\langle x^{2}-1\right\rangle ,\text{ }</math>, <math>\mathbb{D}=\mathbb{R}\left[ x\right] /\left\langle x^{2}\right\rangle .\text{ }</math>
<br>Matrix represantations of the units <math>\mathbf{i}</math>, <math>\mathbf{\varepsilon }</math>, <math>\mathbf{h}</math> are :<br>
:<math>
\mathbf{i\leftrightarrow }\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
-1 & 0
\end{array}
\right] ,</math> <math>\mathbf{\varepsilon \leftrightarrow }\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
1 & -1 \\
1 & -1
\end{array}
\right] ,</math> <math>\mathbf{h\leftrightarrow }\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
1 & 0
\end{array}
\right] </math>,
respectively.


===== Comparing Complex, Hyperbolic and Dual Numbers =====

{|class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center"
|-
! Properties !! [[Complex Numbers]] !! [[Split-complex number|Hyperbolic Numbers]] !! [[Dual Numbers]]
|-
| [[Algebraic Structure]] || Field || Commutative Ring || Commutative Ring
|-
| Property || <math>\mathbf{z}=a+\mathbf{i}b, \mathbf{i}^{2}=-1</math>|| <math>\mathbf{z}=a+\mathbf{h}b, \mathbf{h}^{2}=1</math> || <math>\mathbf{z}=a+\mathbf{\varepsilon }b, \mathbf{\varepsilon }^{2}= 0</math>
|-
| [[Conjugate]] || <math>\overline{\mathbf{z}}=a-\mathbf{i}b</math> || <math>\overline{\mathbf{z}}=a-\mathbf{h}b</math> || <math>\overline{\mathbf{z}}=a-\mathbf{\varepsilon }b</math>
|-
| [[Norm (mathematics)|Norm]] || <math>\left\vert \mathbf{z}\right\vert =\sqrt{a^{2}+b^{2}}</math> || <math>\left\vert \mathbf{z}\right\vert =\sqrt{a^{2}-b^{2}}</math> || <math>\left\vert\mathbf{z}\right\vert = \left\vert a\right\vert </math>
|-
| [[Geometry]] || [[Euclidean Geometry]] || Lorentzian Geometry || Galilean Geometry
|-
| [[Circle]] || <math>x^{2}+y^{2}=r^{2}</math> || <math>x^{2}-y^{2}=\pm r^{2}</math> || <math>\left\vert x\right\vert=r</math>
|-
| [[Rotation (mathematics)|Rotation]] Type || Elliptic Rotation || Hyperbolic Rotation || Parabolic Rotation
|-
| [[Euler's formula|Euler's Formula]] || <math>e^{\mathbf{i}\theta }=\text{cos }{\theta}+i\text{sin }{\theta }</math> || <math>e^{\mathbf{h}\theta }=\text{cosh }{\theta }+\mathbf{h}\text{sinh }{\theta }</math>|| <math>e^{\mathbf{\varepsilon}\theta }=1+\mathbf{\varepsilon }\theta </math>
|-
| [[Argument of a complex number|Argument]] || <math>{\arg}\mathbf{z}{=arctan}\tfrac{b}{a}</math> || <math>{\arg}\mathbf{z}{=ln}\tfrac{\left\vert a+b\right\vert }{\sqrt{\left\vert {a}^{2}{-b}^{2}\right\vert }}</math> || <math>{arg}\mathbf{z}=\tfrac{b}{a}</math>
|}

== Definition ==

The set of hybrid numbers <math>\mathbb{K}</math>, defined as
<center><math>
\mathbb{K}=\left\{ a+\mathbf{i}b+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}:a,b,c,d\in\mathbb{R},\text{ }\mathbf{i}^{2}=-1,\text{ }\mathbf{\varepsilon }^{2}=0,\text{ }\mathbf{h}^{2}=1,\text{ }\mathbf{ih}=-\mathbf{hi}=\mathbf{\varepsilon }+\mathbf{i}\right\} .
</math></center>
For the hybrid number <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math>, the number <math>a</math> is called the scalar part and is denoted by <math>S(\mathbf{Z})</math>; <math>b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math> is called the vector part and is denoted by <math>V(\mathbf{Z})</math> ref name="Ozdemir">Özdemir M., Introduction to Hybrid Numbers, Adv. in Applied Clifford Algebras, 28:11, (2018)</ref>.

The conjugate of a hybrid number <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math>, denoted by <math>\overline{\mathbf{Z}}</math>, is
defined as <math>\overline{\mathbf{Z}}=S\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) -V\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) =a-b\mathbf{i}-c\mathbf{\varepsilon }-d\mathbf{h}</math> as in
quaternions. Multiplication operation in the hybrid numbers is [[associative]] and not [[commutative]].

{|class="wikitable" align="center" style="text-align:center; margin-left:0.5em;"
|+Hybrid Multiplication
|-
!width=15|×
!width=15|<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
!width=15|<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
!width=15|<math>\boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
!width=15|<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|-
!<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
|<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|-
!<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{i}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{-1}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1-h}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{\varepsilon +i}</math>
|-
!<math>\boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
|<math>\boldsymbol{\varepsilon }</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1+h}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{0}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{-\varepsilon}</math>
|-
!<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{h}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{- \varepsilon -i}</math>
|<math> \boldsymbol{\varepsilon}</math>
|<math> \mathbf{1}</math>
|}

== Character and Type of a Hybrid Number ==

Let <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math> be a hybrid number. The real number
:<math>
\mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) =\mathbf{Z}\overline{\mathbf{Z}}=\overline{\mathbf{Z}}\mathbf{Z}=a^{2}+\left( b-c\right) ^{2}-c^{2}-d^{2}
</math>
is called the characteristic number of $\mathbf{Z.}</math> We say that a hybrid
number;
:<math>
\left\{
\begin{array}{ll}
\mathbf{Z}\text{ is spacelike } & \text{if }\mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) <0; \\
\mathbf{Z}\text{ is timelike} & \text{if }\mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) >0; \\
\mathbf{Z}\text{ is lightlike} & \text{if }\mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) =0.
\end{array}
\right.
</math>
These are called ""'the characters of the hybrid numbers"'".

Let <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math> be a hybrid number. The real number
:<math>
\mathcal{\bigtriangleup }\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) =-\left( b-c\right)
^{2}+c^{2}+d^{2}
</math>
is called the type number of <math>\mathbf{Z.}</math> We say that a hybrid number;
:<math>
\left\{
\begin{array}{ll}
\mathbf{Z}\text{ is elliptic } & \text{if }\mathcal{\bigtriangleup }\left(
\mathbf{Z}\right) <0; \\
\mathbf{Z}\text{ is hyperbolic} & \text{if }\mathcal{\bigtriangleup }\left(
\mathbf{Z}\right) >0; \\
\mathbf{Z}\text{ is parabolic} & \text{if }\mathcal{\bigtriangleup }\left(
\mathbf{Z}\right) =0.
\end{array}
\right.
</math>
These are called the \textbf{types of the hybrid numbers}. The vector <math>\mathcal{E}_{\mathbf{Z}}=\left( b-c,c,d\right) </math> is called hybridian vector of <math>\mathbf{Z.}</math>

== Norms of Hybrid Numbers ==

Let <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math> be a hybrid number. The real number
:<math>
\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert =\sqrt{\left\vert \mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) \right\vert }=\sqrt{\left\vert a^{2}+\left( b-c\right)
^{2}-c^{2}-d^{2}\right\vert }
</math>
is called \textbf{norm of } <math> \mathbf{Z}.</math> Besides, the real number
:<math>
\mathcal{N}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) =\sqrt{\left\vert \mathcal{\bigtriangleup }\right\vert }=\sqrt{\left\vert -\left( b-c\right)
^{2}+c^{2}+d^{2}\right\vert }
</math>
will be called the norm of the hybrid vector of <math>\mathbf{Z}</math>.
This norm definition is a generalized norm definition that overlaps with the definitions of norms in complex, hyperbolic and dual numbers.

*1. If <math> \mathbf{Z}</math> is a complex number <math>(c=d=0)</math>, then <math>\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert =\sqrt{\left\vert \mathbf{Z}\overline{\mathbf{Z}}\right\vert }=\sqrt{a^{2}+b^{2}}</math>

*2. If <math> \mathbf{Z}</math> is a hyperbolic number <math>(b=c=0)</math>, then <math>\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert =\sqrt{\left\vert \mathbf{Z}\overline{\mathbf{Z}}\right\vert }=\sqrt{\left\vert a^{2}-d^{2}\right\vert }</math>,

*3. If <math> \mathbf{Z}</math> is a dual number <math>(b=d=0)</math>, then <math>\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert=\sqrt{a^{2}}=\left\vert a\right\vert</math>.

== Inverse of a Hybrid Number ==

Using the hybridian product of hybrid numbers, one can show that the
equality<math>\mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}_{1}\mathbf{Z}_{2}\right) =\mathcal{C}
\left( \mathbf{Z}_{1}\right) \mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}_{2}\right) .</math> So,
timelike hybrid numbers form a [[Group (mathematics)|group]] according to the multiplication
operation. The [[Inverse (mathematics)|inverse]] of the number of the hybrid number<math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b
\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h,}</math><math>\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}
\right\Vert \neq 0</math> is defined as
:<math>
\mathbf{Z}^{-1}=\dfrac{\overline{\mathbf{Z}}}{\mathcal{C}\left( \mathbf{Z}
\right) }.
</math>
Accordingly, [[lightlike]] hybrid numbers have no inverse.

== [[Argument of a complex number|Argument]] of a Hybrid Number ==

Let <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math> be a
hybrid number. The argument <math>\arg \mathbf{Z}=\theta </math> of <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is defined as follows with respect
to its type.
:<math>
\left\{
\begin{array}{ll}
\pi -\arctan \dfrac{\mathcal{N}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }{a} & \text{If } \mathbf{Z}\text{ is elliptic and } a<0; \\
\arctan \dfrac{\mathcal{N}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }{a} & \text{If } \mathbf{Z}\text{ is elliptic and } a>0,\text{ } \\
\ln \left\vert \dfrac{a+\mathcal{N}\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }{\rho } \right\vert & \text{If } \mathbf{Z}\text{ is nonlightlike hyperbolic;} \\
\dfrac{c}{\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert } & \text{If }\mathbf{Z}\text{ is parabolic.}
\end{array}
\right.
</math>

== [[Polar form|Polar Form]] of a Hybrid Number ==

Let <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}</math> be a hybrid number, and <math>\theta =\arg \mathbf{Z.}</math>

i. If <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is elliptic, then <math>\mathbf{Z=}\rho \left( \cos \theta +\mathbf{U}\sin \theta \right)</math> such that <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=-1;</math>

ii. If <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> a lightlike hyperbolic, then <math>\mathbf{Z}=a\left( 1+\mathbf{U}\right)</math> such that <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=1;</math>

iii. If <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is spacelike or timelike hyperbolic, then, <math>\mathbf{Z}=k\rho \left( \cosh \theta +\mathbf{U}\sinh \theta \right)</math> such that <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=1,</math> where <math>\rho =\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert ,</math> <math>\mathbf{U=}\tfrac{b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}}{\mathcal{N}\left(\mathbf{Z}\right) }</math> and
: <math>
k=\left\{
\begin{array}{ll}
1 & \mathbf{Z}\text{ is timelike and }a>0\text{,} \\
-1 & \mathbf{Z}\text{ is timelike and }a<0\text{,} \\
\mathbf{U} & \mathbf{Z}\text{ is spacelike and }a>0\text{,} \\
-\mathbf{U} & \mathbf{Z}\text{ is spacelike and }a<0\text{,}
\end{array}
\right.
</math>
for <math>k\in \left\{ -1,1,\mathbf{U},-\mathbf{U}\right\}</math>

iv. If <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is a parabolic hybrid number, then <math>\mathbf{Z=}\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert \left( \epsilon +\mathbf{U}\right)</math> where <math>\mathbf{U}=\tfrac{V\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }{\rho },</math> <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=0,</math> <math>\epsilon =sgn\left( S\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) \right)</math>.

== De Moivre's Formulas For Hybrid Numbers ==

De Moivre's formula for hybrid numbers as follows.<ref name="Ozdemir">Özdemir M., Introduction to Hybrid Numbers, Adv. in Applied Clifford Algebras, 28:11, (2018).</ref>
Let <math>\mathbf{Z}=a+\mathbf{U}b,</math> <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}\in \left\{ \pm 1,0\right\}</math> be a spacelike or timelike hybrid
number. If <math>\theta =\arg \mathbf{Z}</math> and <math>\rho =\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert .</math>

i. If <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is elliptic, then <math>\mathbf{Z}^{n}=\rho ^{n}\left( \cos
n\theta +\mathbf{U}\sin n\theta \right) ,</math> <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=-1;</math>

ii. If <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is hyperbolic, then <math>\mathbf{Z}^{n}=k^{n}\rho ^{n}\left(
\cosh n\theta +\mathbf{U}\sinh n\theta \right) ,</math> <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=1;</math>

iii. If <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is parabolic, then <math>\mathbf{Z}^{n}=\rho ^{n}\left(
\epsilon ^{n}+n\epsilon ^{n-1}\mathbf{U}\right) ,</math> <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=0.</math>

If <math>\mathbf{Z}=a\left( 1+\mathbf{U}\right)</math> is a lightlike hybrid number, then <math>\mathbf{Z}^{n}=a^{n}2^{n-1}\left( 1+\mathbf{U}
\right)</math> where <math>\mathbf{U}=\tfrac{V\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }{\mathcal{N}
\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }</math> and <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=1.</math>

== Roots of a Hybrid Number ==

Let <math>\mathbf{W}</math> be a hybrid number and <math>n\in\mathbb{Z}^{+}.</math> The hybrid numbers <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> satisfying the equation <math>\mathbf{Z}^{n}=\mathbf{W}</math> can be found as follows <ref name="Ozdemir">Özdemir M., Introduction to Hybrid Numbers, Adv. in Applied Clifford Algebras, 28:11, (2018).</ref>.

i. If <math>\mathbf{W}=\rho \left( \cos \theta +\mathbf{U}\sin \theta \right)</math> is an elliptic hybrid number, then the roots of <math>\mathbf{W}</math> are in the form
:<math> \mathbf{Z}_{m}=\sqrt[n]{\rho }\left( \cos \dfrac{\theta +2m\pi }{n}+\mathbf{U}\sin \dfrac{\theta +2m\pi }{n}\right) </math>
for <math>m=0,1,2,...,n-1;</math>

ii. If <math>\mathbf{W=}\rho k\left( \cosh \theta +\mathbf{U}\sinh \theta \right)</math> is a spacelike or timelike hyperbolic hybrid number, then the roots of <math>\mathbf{W}</math> are in the form
:<math>
\left\{
\begin{array}{ll}
\sqrt[n]{\rho }\left( \cosh \dfrac{\theta }{n}+\mathbf{U}\sinh \dfrac{\theta}{n}\right) & \text{If }n\text{ is odd,} \\
k\sqrt[n]{\rho }\left( \cosh \dfrac{\theta }{n}+\mathbf{U}\sinh \dfrac{\theta }{n}\right) & \text{If }n\text{ is even, }\mathbf{W}\text{ is timelike and }a>0, \\
\text{No roots} & \text{other cases}
\end{array}
\right.
</math>
where <math>k\in \left\{ 1,-1,\mathbf{U},-\mathbf{U}\right\}</math>;

iii. If <math>\mathbf{W}=\rho \left( \epsilon +\mathbf{U}\right)</math>, <math>\epsilon
=sgn\left( S\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) \right)</math> is a parabolic hybrid number,
the only root is
: <math>
\mathbf{Z}=\rho \left( 1+\dfrac{\mathbf{U}}{n}\right)
</math>
where <math>\rho =\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert .</math>

If <math>\mathbf{W}=a\left( 1+\mathbf{U}\right)</math> is a lightlike hybrid number, then
:<math>
\mathbf{Z}=\left\{
\begin{array}{cc}
\dfrac{\pm \sqrt[n]{2a}}{2}\left( 1+\mathbf{U}\right) & \text{if }n \text{ is even} \\
\dfrac{\sqrt[n]{2a}}{2}\left( 1+\mathbf{U}\right) & \text{if }n\text{ is odd}
\end{array}
\right.
</math>
for <math>n\in\mathbb{Z}^{+} </math> where <math>\mathbf{U}=\tfrac{V\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }{\mathcal{N}
\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) }</math> and <math>\mathbf{U}^{2}=1.</math>

== The [[Matrix Representations of Real Clifford algebras|Matrix Representation]] of Hybrid Numbers ==

Just as [[complex numbers]] and [[quaternions]] can be represented as matrices, so can hybrid numbers. There are at least two ways of representing hybrid numbers as real matrices in such a way that hybrid addition and multiplication correspond to [[matrix addition]] and [[matrix multiplication]]. The hybrid number ring <math>\mathbb{K}</math> is isomorphic to <math>2\times 2</math> [[matrix rings]] <math>\mathbb{M}_{2\times 2}.</math> So, each hybrid number can be represented by a 2 by 2 real matrix. Thus, it can be done operations and calculations in the hybrid numbers using the corresponding matrices <ref name="Ozdemir">Özdemir M., Introduction to Hybrid Numbers, Adv. in Applied Clifford Algebras, 28:11, (2018).</ref>, <ref>Özdemir M., Finding n-th Roots of a 2×2 Real Matrix Using De Moivre's Formula, Adv. in Applied Clifford Algebras, 29:2, (2019).</ref>.
The map <math>\varphi :\mathbb{K\rightarrow M}_{2\times 2}</math> is a [[ring isomorphism]] where
:<math>
\varphi \left( a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}\right) =
\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
a+c & b-c+d \\
c-b+d & a-c
\end{array}
\right]
</math>
for
<math>\mathbf{Z}=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{\varepsilon }+d\mathbf{h}\in \mathbb{K}</math>.
Also, the real matrix
:<math>
A=\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
a & b \\
c & d
\end{array}
\right] ,
</math>
corresponds to the hybrid number
:<math>
\mathbf{Z=}\left( \dfrac{a+d}{2}\right) +\left( \dfrac{a+b-c-d}{2}\right)
\mathbf{i}+\left( \dfrac{a-d}{2}\right) \mathbf{\varepsilon }+\left( \dfrac{b+c}{2}\right) \mathbf{h}
</math>

According to this [[ring isomorphism]], [[Matrix Representations of Real Clifford algebras|matrix represantations]] of the units 1, <math>\mathbf{i}</math>, <math>\mathbf{\varepsilon }</math>, <math>\mathbf{h}</math> are as follows :<br>
<math>\mathbf{1\leftrightarrow }\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
1 & 0 \\
0 & 1
\end{array}
\right] ,</math> <math>\mathbf{i\leftrightarrow }\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
-1 & 0
\end{array}
\right] ,</math> <math>\mathbf{\varepsilon \leftrightarrow }\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
1 & -1 \\
1 & -1
\end{array}
\right] ,</math> <math>\mathbf{h\leftrightarrow }\left[
\begin{array}{cc}
0 & 1 \\
1 & 0
\end{array}
\right] </math>

Let <math>A</math> be a 2 by 2 real matrix corresponding to the hybrid number <math>\mathbf{Z,}</math> then there are the following equalities.<br>

* <math>\left\Vert \mathbf{Z}\right\Vert =\sqrt{\left\vert \det A\right\vert }</math>,

* <math>\mathcal{\bigtriangleup }\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) =\left( \tfrac{\mathrm{tr}A}{2}\right) ^{2}-\det A,</math>

* <math>\bigtriangleup _{A}=(\mathrm{tr}A)^{2}-4\det A=4\mathcal{\bigtriangleup }\left( \mathbf{Z}\right)</math> is discriminant of the characteristic polynomial
of <math>A</math>

* <math>\mathbf{Z}^{-1}</math> exists if and only if <math>\det \left( A\right) \neq 0</math>.

===== Clasification of Matrices =====
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! <math>A</math> !! <math> \det A>0</math> !! <math> \det A=0</math> !! <math>\det A<0</math>
|-
| <math>{(trA)}^{2}<4det A</math>|| Timelike Elliptic || <math>{\emptyset }</math> || <math>{\emptyset }</math>
|-
| <math>{(trA)}^{2}=4det A</math> || Timelike Parabolic || Lightlike Parabolic || <math>{\emptyset }</math>
|-
|<math>{(trA)}^{2}>4det A</math> || Timelike Hyperbolic || Lightlike Hyperbolic || Spacelike Hyperbolic
|}

== The logarithm of a Hybrid Number ==

[[Logarithm function]] for elliptic and hyperbolic hybrid numbers can be defined as
:<math>\ln \mathbf{Z}=\ln \left\vert \mathbf{Z}\right\vert +\mathbf{V}\theta.</math>
And, the logarithm of parabolic hybrid numbers is not defined. The identity <math>\log \left( \mathbf{Z}_{1}\mathbf{Z}_{2}\right) =\log \mathbf{Z}_{1}+\log\mathbf{Z}_{2}</math> which is well known for the real numbers, is not correct for the hybrid numbers, since <math>\mathbf{Z}_{1}\mathbf{Z}_{2}\neq \mathbf{Z}_{2}\mathbf{Z}_{1}.</math>

== [[Euler's formula|Euler's Formulas]] for the Hybrid Numbers ==

Using the [[Series expansion|serial expansions]] of [[Exponential function|exponential]], [[Hyperbolic function|hyperbolic]] and [[trigonometric functions]], we can express the Euler formulas of unit hybrid numbers as follows.

{| class="wikitable"
|-
! Type of Hybrid Number !! Euler Formula
|-
| <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is timelike hyperbolic || <math>\mathbf{Z}=e^{\mathbf{V}\theta }=\cos \theta +\mathbf{V}\sin \theta</math>
|-
| <math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is spacelike hyperbolic || <math>\mathbf{Z}=\mathbf{V}e^{\mathbf{V}\theta }=\sinh \theta +\mathbf{V}\cosh\theta</math>
|-
|<math>\mathbf{Z}</math> is parabolic || <math>\mathbf{Z}=e^{\mathbf{V}\theta }=\epsilon +\mathbf{V}\theta</math>, <math>\epsilon=sgn\left( S\left( \mathbf{Z}\right) \right)</math>
|}

Notice that these formulas are the generalized forms of the Euler formulas well known for complex, dual and hyperbolic numbers.


==See also==
{{Div col|colwidth=20em}}
* [[Associative algebra]]
* [[Complex Numbers]]
* [[Biquaternion]]
* [[Clifford algebra]]
* [[Complex number]]
* [[Conversion between quaternions and Euler angles]]
* [[Division algebra]]
* [[Dual Numbers]]
* [[Dual quaternion]]
* [[Euler angles]]
* [[Exterior algebra]]
* [[Geometric algebra]]
* [[Hyperbolic quaternion]]
* [[Hypercomplex number]]
* [[Octonion]]
* [[Pauli matrices]]
* [[Quaternion]]
* [[Quaternion variable]]
* [[Quaternionic matrix]]
* [[Quaternions and spatial rotation]]
* [[Rotations in 4-dimensional Euclidean space]]
* [[Split-quaternion]]
{{Div col end}}
== References ==
<!-- Inline citations added to your article will automatically display here. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WP:REFB for instructions on how to add citations. -->
{{reflist}}
{{Navbox
| name = Number systems
| state = {{{state<includeonly>|autocollapse</includeonly>}}}
| title = [[Number]] systems
| listclass = hlist
| group1 = [[Countable set]]s
| list1 =
* [[Natural number]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb N</math>)
* [[Integer]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb Z</math>)
* [[Rational number]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb Q</math>)
* [[Constructible number]]s
* [[Algebraic number]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb A</math>)
* [[Ring of periods|Periods]]
* [[Computable number]]s
* [[Definable real number]]s
* [[Arithmetical set|Arithmetical numbers]]
* [[Gaussian integer]]s
| group2 = [[Division algebra]]s
| list2=
* [[Real number]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb R</math>)
* [[Complex number]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb C</math>)
* [[Quaternion]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb H</math>)
* [[Octonion]]s&nbsp;(<math>\mathbb O</math>)
| group3 = Split<br>[[composition algebra]]s
| list3 =
* over <math>\mathbb R</math>:
* [[Split-complex number]]s
* [[Hybrid Number]]s
* [[Split-quaternion]]s
* [[Split-octonion]]s<br> over <math>\mathbb C</math>:
* [[Bicomplex number]]s
* [[Biquaternion]]s
* [[Bioctonion]]s
| group4 = Other [[hypercomplex number|hypercomplex]]
| list4 =
* [[Dual number]]s
* [[Dual quaternion]]s
* [[Hyperbolic quaternion]]s
* [[Sedenion]]s &nbsp;(<math>\mathbb S</math>)
* [[Split-biquaternion]]s
* [[Multicomplex number]]s
| group5 = Other types
| list5 =
* [[Cardinal number]]s
* [[Irrational number]]s
* [[Fuzzy number]]s
* [[Hyperreal number]]s
* [[Levi-Civita field]]
* [[Surreal number]]s
* [[Transcendental number]]s
* [[Ordinal number]]s
* [[P-adic number|{{nowrap|"p"-adic}} numbers]]
* [[Supernatural number]]s
* [[Superreal number]]s
| belowclass = hlist
| below =
* [[Number#Classification of numbers|Classification]]
* {{icon|list}} [[List of types of numbers|List]]
* {{icon|portal}} [[Portal:Numbers|Numbers portal]]
}}<noinclude>
{{Documentation}}
</noinclude>

Template:North Island Line RDT

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

fixes

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
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{{Routemap
 
{{Routemap
 
| inline = {{{inline|<includeonly>yes</includeonly>}}}
 
| inline = {{{inline|<includeonly>yes</includeonly>}}}
| title = North Island Line
+
| title = North Island line
 
| title-bg = #{{rcr|MTR|Tseung Kwan O}};{{linear-gradient|left|#{{rcr|MTR|Tseung Kwan O}}, #{{rcr|MTR|Tung Chung}}}}
 
| title-bg = #{{rcr|MTR|Tseung Kwan O}};{{linear-gradient|left|#{{rcr|MTR|Tseung Kwan O}}, #{{rcr|MTR|Tung Chung}}}}
 
| title-color = #fff
 
| title-color = #fff
Line 9: Line 9:
 
| map =
 
| map =
 
~~''Colour legend''
 
~~''Colour legend''
extSTRq orange\extBHFq orange\extSTRq orange\extSTRq orange\extSTRq orange~~ ~~ ~~New tracks (Tung Chung Line)
+
extSTRq orange\extBHFq orange\extSTRq orange\extSTRq orange\extSTRq orange~~ ~~ ~~New tracks (Tung Chung line)
extSTRq purple\extBHFq purple\extSTRq purple\extSTRq purple\extSTRq purple~~ ~~ ~~New tracks (Tseung Kwan O Line)
+
extSTRq purple\extBHFq purple\extSTRq purple\extSTRq purple\extSTRq purple~~ ~~ ~~New tracks (Tseung Kwan O line)
 
-colspan-1
 
-colspan-1
 
<hr/><br/>
 
<hr/><br/>
 
s*Interchange!_bg=#{{rcr|MTR|Tseung Kwan O}}\s*Swap!_bg=#{{rcr|MTR|Tung Chung}}~~ ~~ ~~Names of two schemes~~ ~~color=white,fontsize=info
 
s*Interchange!_bg=#{{rcr|MTR|Tseung Kwan O}}\s*Swap!_bg=#{{rcr|MTR|Tung Chung}}~~ ~~ ~~Names of two schemes~~ ~~color=white,fontsize=info
utCONTg\\\\utCONTg\\\numN090~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Island Line (MTR)|Island Line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Kennedy Town}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|u}}
+
utCONTg\\\\utCONTg\\\numN090~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Island line (MTR)|Island line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Kennedy Town}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|u}}
utSTR\\utCONTg\\utSTR\\utCONTg\~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Tung Chung Line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Tung Chung}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|u}}
+
utSTR\\utCONTg\\utSTR\\utCONTg\~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Tung Chung line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Tung Chung}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|u}}
 
utSTR\\utSTR\utCONTg\utSTR\\utSTR\utCONTg~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Airport Express (MTR)|Airport Express]]|to {{stl|MTR|AsiaWorld–Expo}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|u}}
 
utSTR\\utSTR\utCONTg\utSTR\\utSTR\utCONTg~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Airport Express (MTR)|Airport Express]]|to {{stl|MTR|AsiaWorld–Expo}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|u}}
 
utSTR\BLf+l\extSTR orange!~utKBHFe!~HUBaq\utKBHFe!~HUBeq\utSTR\BLf+l\extSTR orange!~utKBHFe!~HUBaq\utKBHFe!~HUBeq~~'''{{stl|MTR|Hong Kong}}'''
 
utSTR\BLf+l\extSTR orange!~utKBHFe!~HUBaq\utKBHFe!~HUBeq\utSTR\BLf+l\extSTR orange!~utKBHFe!~HUBaq\utKBHFe!~HUBeq~~'''{{stl|MTR|Hong Kong}}'''
Line 21: Line 21:
 
utSTR\utSTR\extKBHFe orange!~HUBa\\utSTR\utSTR\extBHF orange\~~ ~~''{{stl|MTR|Tamar}}''~~ ~~ ~~bg=#ddf
 
utSTR\utSTR\extKBHFe orange!~HUBa\\utSTR\utSTR\extBHF orange\~~ ~~''{{stl|MTR|Tamar}}''~~ ~~ ~~bg=#ddf
 
utSTR\utSTR\extKBHFa purple!~HUBe\\utSTR\utSTR\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~'''Left''': as termini of two lines~~ ~~bg=#ddf
 
utSTR\utSTR\extKBHFa purple!~HUBe\\utSTR\utSTR\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~'''Left''': as termini of two lines~~ ~~bg=#ddf
utSTR\utSTR\extSTR purple\\utSTR\utSTR\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~'''Right''': as {{abbr|TCL|Tung Chung Line}} station~~ ~~bg=#ddf
+
utSTR\utSTR\extSTR purple\\utSTR\utSTR\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~'''Right''': as {{abbr|TCL|Tung Chung line}} station~~ ~~bg=#ddf
 
utXBHF-L!~HUBrg-R\utXBHF-R!~HUBlg-L\extSTR purple\\utXBHF-L!~HUBrg-R\utXBHF-R!~HUBlg-L\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~({{stl|MTR|Admiralty}})
 
utXBHF-L!~HUBrg-R\utXBHF-R!~HUBlg-L\extSTR purple\\utXBHF-L!~HUBrg-R\utXBHF-R!~HUBlg-L\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~({{stl|MTR|Admiralty}})
utKRZt!~MASKll!~ulCONTg@Gq!~ulBHF~L!~HUB-R\utSTR!~ulBHF~R!~HUB-L\extSTR purple\\utKRZt!~MASKll!~ulCONTg@Gq!~ulBHF~L!~HUB-R\utSTR!~ulBHF~R!~HUB-L\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{rmri|l}} {{BSto|[[South Island Line]]|to {{stl|MTR|South Horizons}}|it=off|align=left}}
+
utKRZt!~MASKll!~ulCONTg@Gq!~ulBHF~L!~HUB-R\utSTR!~ulBHF~R!~HUB-L\extSTR purple\\utKRZt!~MASKll!~ulCONTg@Gq!~ulBHF~L!~HUB-R\utSTR!~ulBHF~R!~HUB-L\extSTR orange\~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{rmri|l}} {{BSto|[[South Island line]]|to {{stl|MTR|South Horizons}}|it=off|align=left}}
 
utSTR!~exlBHF~L!~HUBlf-R\uemtKRZt!~exlBHF~R!~HUBrf-L\exmtKRZt purple+\extSTR+r\utSTR!~exlBHF~L!~HUBlf-R\uemtKRZt!~exlBHF~R!~HUBrf-L\exmtKRZt orange+\extSTR+r
 
utSTR!~exlBHF~L!~HUBlf-R\uemtKRZt!~exlBHF~R!~HUBrf-L\exmtKRZt purple+\extSTR+r\utSTR!~exlBHF~L!~HUBlf-R\uemtKRZt!~exlBHF~R!~HUBrf-L\exmtKRZt orange+\extSTR+r
utLSTR!~MFADEf\utSTRl\uxmtKRZt purple+\xmtKRZtu!~MASKrr!~ulCONTf@Fq\utLSTR!~MFADEf\utSTRl\uxmtKRZt orange+\xmtKRZtu!~MASKrr!~ulCONTf@Fq~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Tsuen Wan Line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Tsuen Wan}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|r}}
+
utLSTR!~MFADEf\utSTRl\uxmtKRZt purple+\xmtKRZt!~MASKrr!~ulCONTf@Fq\utLSTR!~MFADEf\utSTRl\uxmtKRZt orange+\xmtKRZt!~MASKrr!~ulCONTf@Fq~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Tsuen Wan line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Tsuen Wan}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|r}}
 
\\extXBHF-L purple\extXBHF-R\\\extXBHF-L orange\extXBHF-R~~''{{stl|MTR|Exhibition Centre}}''
 
\\extXBHF-L purple\extXBHF-R\\\extXBHF-L orange\extXBHF-R~~''{{stl|MTR|Exhibition Centre}}''
\extSTRc2 purple\extSTR3 purple\extCONTf\\extSTRc2 orange\extSTR3 orange\extCONTf~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[North South Corridor]]|to {{stl|MTR|Lo Wu}} or {{stl|MTR|Lok Ma Chau}}|it=all|align=right}} {{rmri|d}}
+
\extSTRc2 purple\extSTR3 purple\extCONTf\\extSTRc2 orange\extSTR3 orange\extCONTf~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[East Rail line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Lo Wu}} or {{stl|MTR|Lok Ma Chau}}|it=all|align=right}} {{rmri|d}}
 
extSTR+1 purple\extSTRc4 purple\\\extSTR+1 orange\extSTRc4 orange
 
extSTR+1 purple\extSTRc4 purple\\\extSTR+1 orange\extSTRc4 orange
 
utLSTR!~MFADEg\extBHF purple\\\utLSTR!~MFADEg\extBHF orange\\~~''{{stl|MTR|Causeway Bay North}}''
 
utLSTR!~MFADEg\extBHF purple\\\utLSTR!~MFADEg\extBHF orange\\~~''{{stl|MTR|Causeway Bay North}}''
 
utBHF\extSTR purple\\\utBHF\extSTR orange\\~~'''{{stl|MTR|Tin Hau}}'''
 
utBHF\extSTR purple\\\utBHF\extSTR orange\\~~'''{{stl|MTR|Tin Hau}}'''
utSTR2\extSTR3 purple!~utSTRc3\\\uxmtABZg2 purple+\extSTR orange!~utSTRc3\\~~ ~~ ~~'''Left''': joins {{abbr|TKL|Tseung Kwan O Line}}~~ ~~bg=#ddf
+
utSTR2\extSTR3 purple!~utSTRc3\\\uxmtABZg2 purple+\extSTR orange!~utSTRc3\\~~ ~~ ~~'''Left''': joins {{abbr|TKL|Tseung Kwan O line}}~~ ~~bg=#ddf
extSTR+1 purple!~utSTRc1\utSTR+4\\\extSTR purple!~utSTRc1\uxmtABZg+4 orange+\\~~ ~~ ~~'''Right''': divides Island Line~~ ~~bg=#ddf
+
extSTR+1 purple!~utSTRc1\utSTR+4\\\extSTR purple!~utSTRc1\uxmtABZg+4 orange+\\~~ ~~ ~~'''Right''': divides Island line~~ ~~bg=#ddf
 
extSTR purple\utBHF\\\extSTR purple\utBHF\\~~'''{{stl|MTR|Fortress Hill}}'''
 
extSTR purple\utBHF\\\extSTR purple\utBHF\\~~'''{{stl|MTR|Fortress Hill}}'''
 
extSTR purple!~utKXBHFa-L\utXBHF-R\\\extSTR purple!~utKXBHFa-L\utXBHF-R\\~~'''{{stl|MTR|North Point}}'''
 
extSTR purple!~utKXBHFa-L\utXBHF-R\\\extSTR purple!~utKXBHFa-L\utXBHF-R\\~~'''{{stl|MTR|North Point}}'''
utSTRl\utTBHFt\utSTR+r\\utSTRl\utTBHFt\utSTR+r\~~{{stl|MTR|Quarry Bay}}
+
utSTRl\utTBHFt\utSTR2+r\utSTRc3\utSTRl\utTBHFt\utSTR2+r\utSTRc3~~{{stl|MTR|Quarry Bay}}
utSTR\utCONTf\\\utSTR\utCONTf~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Tseung Kwan O Line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Po Lam}} or {{stl|MTR|LOHAS Park}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|d}}
+
\utSTR\utSTRc1\utCONT4\\utSTR\utSTRc1\utCONT4~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Tseung Kwan O line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Po Lam}} or {{stl|MTR|LOHAS Park}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|c2}}
utCONTf\\\\utCONTf\~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Island Line (MTR)|Island Line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Chai Wan}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|d}}
+
utCONTf\\\\utCONTf\~~ ~~ ~~ ~~{{BSto|[[Island line (MTR)|Island line]]|to {{stl|MTR|Chai Wan}}|it=off|align=right}} {{rmri|d}}
 
}}<noinclude>
 
}}<noinclude>
   
{{rdt intro|the proposed [[North Island Line]] of the [[MTR]]}}
+
{{rdt intro|the proposed [[North Island line]] of the [[MTR]]}}
   
 
[[Category:MTR route templates|North Island]]
 
[[Category:MTR route templates|North Island]]

Blake's 7

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Television

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
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On 9 April 2013, the BBC reported that a new series of ''Blake's 7'' would be broadcast by [[SyFy]].<ref name="bbc.co.uk">{{cite web| title = Blake's 7: Classic BBC sci-fi to return on Syfy channel | url = https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-22079232 | date= 9 April 2013 | accessdate = 9 April 2013 | author = BBC News | publisher = bbc.co.uk | work = [[bbc.co.uk]]}}</ref> Other media reported that a full-series order of thirteen episodes had been placed.<ref name="Den Of Geek">{{cite web| title = Blake's 7 reboot goes to full series order | url = http://www.denofgeek.com/tv/blakes-7/25155/blakes-7-reboot-goes-to-full-series-order | date= 9 April 2013 | accessdate = 9 April 2013 | author = Louisa Mellor | publisher = denofgeek.com | work = [[denofgeek.com]]}}</ref>
 
On 9 April 2013, the BBC reported that a new series of ''Blake's 7'' would be broadcast by [[SyFy]].<ref name="bbc.co.uk">{{cite web| title = Blake's 7: Classic BBC sci-fi to return on Syfy channel | url = https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-22079232 | date= 9 April 2013 | accessdate = 9 April 2013 | author = BBC News | publisher = bbc.co.uk | work = [[bbc.co.uk]]}}</ref> Other media reported that a full-series order of thirteen episodes had been placed.<ref name="Den Of Geek">{{cite web| title = Blake's 7 reboot goes to full series order | url = http://www.denofgeek.com/tv/blakes-7/25155/blakes-7-reboot-goes-to-full-series-order | date= 9 April 2013 | accessdate = 9 April 2013 | author = Louisa Mellor | publisher = denofgeek.com | work = [[denofgeek.com]]}}</ref>
   
During 2015, the Nation Estate ended relations with Andrew Mark Sewell and the ''Blake's 7'' licence was awarded to Big Finish Productions. On 4 April 2016, it announced The Liberator Chronicles Volume 12, due to be released later the same month, which will be the final entry in Big Finish's long-running collection of audio box-sets based on ''Blake's 7''.
+
During 2015, the Nation Estate ended relations with Andrew Mark Sewell and the ''Blake's 7'' licence was awarded to Big Finish Productions. On 4 April 2016, it announced The Liberator Chronicles Volume 12, due to be released later the same month, which would be the final entry in Big Finish's long-running collection of audio box-sets based on ''Blake's 7'' With B7 Media's involvement. All future releases on their Blake's 7 ranges would be produced in-house at Big Finish under full license.
   
 
==Merchandise==
 
==Merchandise==

Islam by country

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Table: better and avoiding "100%"

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
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|15,181,925
 
|15,181,925
 
|style="text-align:right;"|15,181,925
 
|style="text-align:right;"|15,181,925
|style="background:#228B22; text-align:center;"|100
+
|style="background:#228B22; text-align:center;"|99.8
 
|style="text-align:center;"|0.6
 
|style="text-align:center;"|0.6
  +
|<ref>{{cite web |title=The Global Religious Landscape|url=http://www.pewforum.org/files/2012/12/globalReligion-full.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130806002044/http://www.pewforum.org/files/2012/12/globalReligion-full.pdf|archivedate=6 August 2013|publisher=Pew Research Center|accessdate=27 December 2013}}</ref>||-
|<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html|title=Africa :: Somalia — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency|website=www.cia.gov|access-date=13 December 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
 
|{{flagicon|South Africa}} [[Islam in South Africa|South Africa]]
 
|{{flagicon|South Africa}} [[Islam in South Africa|South Africa]]
 
|57,725,600
 
|57,725,600

Malaysia Super League

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Alexa Bliss

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Personal life

← Previous revision Revision as of 08:43, 8 January 2019
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Kaufman is an avid fan of [[The Walt Disney Company|Disney]],<ref name="LittleMissBliss"/> which she attributes to her family's annual trips to [[Walt Disney World]] starting at age three, despite her family's low income at the time.<ref name="WWEdaughter"/> She is also a fan of her hometown [[Columbus Blue Jackets]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.instagram.com/p/BTDCeuhDfB4/|title=Instagram post by Alexa_Bliss • Apr 19, 2017 at 12:52&nbsp;am UTC|website=Instagram|accessdate=May 2, 2017}}</ref> She has cited [[Trish Stratus]] and [[Rey Mysterio]] as her influences in wrestling.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://614columbus.com/2015/06/house-of-bliss/|title=House of Bliss|author=Reyen, Ali|website=614 Columbus|accessdate=February 16, 2016}}</ref>
 
Kaufman is an avid fan of [[The Walt Disney Company|Disney]],<ref name="LittleMissBliss"/> which she attributes to her family's annual trips to [[Walt Disney World]] starting at age three, despite her family's low income at the time.<ref name="WWEdaughter"/> She is also a fan of her hometown [[Columbus Blue Jackets]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.instagram.com/p/BTDCeuhDfB4/|title=Instagram post by Alexa_Bliss • Apr 19, 2017 at 12:52&nbsp;am UTC|website=Instagram|accessdate=May 2, 2017}}</ref> She has cited [[Trish Stratus]] and [[Rey Mysterio]] as her influences in wrestling.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://614columbus.com/2015/06/house-of-bliss/|title=House of Bliss|author=Reyen, Ali|website=614 Columbus|accessdate=February 16, 2016}}</ref>
   
<ref name="TVInsider">{{cite web|url=https://www.tvinsider.com/365582/wwe-alexa-bliss-interview-total-divas-season-7/|title=WWE's Alexa Bliss Ready to Bring '5 Feet of Fury' to 'Total Divas'}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.miamiherald.com/sports/fighting/article204460199.html |title=}}</ref> Kaufman is engaged to fellow WWE Superstar [[Buddy Murphy]]. She has a deaf pet pig named Larry-Steve, which prompted her to become [[vegetarian]] for a number of months.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.espn.com/wwe/story/_/id/20313283/wwe-alexa-bliss-takes-strenuous-wwe-lifestyle-stride |title=Alexa Bliss takes strenuous WWE lifestyle in stride}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://tjrwrestling.net/tjr-wwe-network-table-for-3-review-with-trish-stratus-lita-and-alexa-bliss/|title=TJR WWE Network Table for 3 Review with Trish Stratus, Lita and Alexa Bliss - TJR Wrestling|website=tjrwrestling.net}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Alexa Bliss tastes Shake Shack for the very first time: SummerSlam Diary|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jC_Zx6_kC0g|publisher=WWE}}</ref>
+
Kaufman is engaged to fellow WWE superstar [[Buddy Murphy]].<ref name="TVInsider">{{cite web|url=https://www.tvinsider.com/365582/wwe-alexa-bliss-interview-total-divas-season-7/|title=WWE's Alexa Bliss Ready to Bring '5 Feet of Fury' to 'Total Divas'}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.miamiherald.com/sports/fighting/article204460199.html |title=Buddy Murphy returning to the site of his first WWE NXT match}}</ref> She has a deaf pet pig named Larry-Steve, which prompted her to become [[vegetarian]] for a number of months.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.espn.com/wwe/story/_/id/20313283/wwe-alexa-bliss-takes-strenuous-wwe-lifestyle-stride |title=Alexa Bliss takes strenuous WWE lifestyle in stride}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://tjrwrestling.net/tjr-wwe-network-table-for-3-review-with-trish-stratus-lita-and-alexa-bliss/|title=TJR WWE Network Table for 3 Review with Trish Stratus, Lita and Alexa Bliss - TJR Wrestling|website=tjrwrestling.net}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Alexa Bliss tastes Shake Shack for the very first time: SummerSlam Diary|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jC_Zx6_kC0g|publisher=WWE}}</ref>
   
 
In the second half of 2018 Kaufman has dealt with numerous injuries. She hasn't wrestled since losing to Ronda Rousey at Hell in a Cell on Sept. 16. <ref>{{Cite web|url=https://bleacherreport.com/articles/2805719-alexa-bliss-injury-update-luke-harper-and-more-in-wwe-news-roundup-for-nov-12|title=Alexa Bliss Injury Update, Luke Harper and More in WWE News Roundup for Nov. 12|last=Zucker|first=Joseph|website=Bleacher Report|language=en|access-date=2018-12-18}}</ref> According to the ''Wrestling Observer Radio''<nowiki/>'s [[Dave Meltzer]], she is recovering from "multiple concussions in a short period of time," which has kept her from in ring competition. It's unclear when Bliss will be healthy enough to wrestle again.
 
In the second half of 2018 Kaufman has dealt with numerous injuries. She hasn't wrestled since losing to Ronda Rousey at Hell in a Cell on Sept. 16. <ref>{{Cite web|url=https://bleacherreport.com/articles/2805719-alexa-bliss-injury-update-luke-harper-and-more-in-wwe-news-roundup-for-nov-12|title=Alexa Bliss Injury Update, Luke Harper and More in WWE News Roundup for Nov. 12|last=Zucker|first=Joseph|website=Bleacher Report|language=en|access-date=2018-12-18}}</ref> According to the ''Wrestling Observer Radio''<nowiki/>'s [[Dave Meltzer]], she is recovering from "multiple concussions in a short period of time," which has kept her from in ring competition. It's unclear when Bliss will be healthy enough to wrestle again.

Talk:Deborah Lipstadt

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Selection of works

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:::::: More than 5. [[User:Icewhiz|Icewhiz]] ([[User talk:Icewhiz|talk]]) 07:31, 8 January 2019 (UTC)
 
:::::: More than 5. [[User:Icewhiz|Icewhiz]] ([[User talk:Icewhiz|talk]]) 07:31, 8 January 2019 (UTC)
   
:::::::<nowiki>#</nowiki>1 hasn't been published yet, which is why I neither counted it nor added it to the article. #6 is a merely a reprint of ''History on Trial: My Day in Court with a Holocaust Denier'' (with a new title to match the title of the movie based on it, and cover featuring the movie's stars, and a different introduction -- by the movie director instead of by Anthony Lewis); so that's not an additional book. #8 is a translation of ''Antisemitism Here and Now'', translated by Stephan Pauli; so that's not an additional book. Also, ''The Zionist Career of Louis Lipsky, 1900-1921'', which you just added to the article, is her doctoral dissertation at Brandeis, written in 1976 and later published in 1982; it's held in very few libraries and for most of those its held offsite rather than in the stacks. [[User:Softlavender|Softlavender]] ([[User talk:Softlavender|talk]]) 08:42, 8 January 2019 (UTC)
+
:::::::<nowiki>#</nowiki>1 hasn't been published yet, which is why I neither counted it nor added it to the article. #6 is a merely a reprint of ''History on Trial: My Day in Court with a Holocaust Denier'' (with a new title to match the title of the movie based on it, and cover featuring the movie's stars, and a different introduction -- by the movie director instead of by Anthony Lewis); so that's not an additional book. #8 is a translation of ''Antisemitism Here and Now'', translated by Stephan Pauli; so that's not an additional book. Also, ''The Zionist Career of Louis Lipsky, 1900-1921'', which you just added to the article, is her doctoral dissertation at Brandeis, written in 1976 and later published in 1982; it's held in very few libraries and for most of those it's held offsite rather than in the stacks. [[User:Softlavender|Softlavender]] ([[User talk:Softlavender|talk]]) 08:42, 8 January 2019 (UTC)

Talk:Joseph M. Holbrook

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Assessment: +Biography: class=Stub, politician-work-group=y, politician-priority=, listas=Holbrook, Joseph, living=n; +Iowa: class=Stub (assisted)

New page

{{WikiProject Biography |class=Stub |politician-work-group=y |politician-priority= |listas=Holbrook, Joseph |living=n}}
{{WikiProject Iowa |class=Stub}}

Darren Lemke

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

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}}
 
}}
   
'''Darren Lemke''' (born {{Birth based on age as of date|27|1997|July|12|noage=1}}) is an [[United States|American]] [[screenwriter]] and [[film director]] who has been active in the film industry since the late 1990s. His first major screenwriting credit was for ''[[Shrek Forever After]]'' (2010), which he wrote with [[Josh Klausner]]. Lemke directed the thriller film ''[[Lost (2004 film)|Lost]]'' (2004), which he also wrote.
+
'''Darren Lemke''' (born {{Birth based on age as of date|27|1997|July|12|noage=1}}) is an [[United States|American]] [[screenwriter]] and [[film director]] who is best known for writing the screenplay for ''[[Shrek Forever After]]'' (2010), which he wrote with [[Josh Klausner]]. In addition, Lemke directed the thriller film ''[[Lost (2004 film)|Lost]]'' (2004), which he also wrote.
   
 
==Early life and education==
 
==Early life and education==

Wally Wingert

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Film

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|2004 || ''[[Scooby Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed]]'' || Green Eyed Skeleton Brother ||
 
|2004 || ''[[Scooby Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed]]'' || Green Eyed Skeleton Brother ||
 
|-
 
|-
|2005 || ''[[Digimon Frontier: Island of Lost Digimon]]'' || HippoGryphomon ||
+
|2005 || ''[[Digimon Frontier: Island of Lost Digimon]]'' || HippoGryphomon || English dub
 
|-
 
|-
 
|2006 || ''[[Final Fantasy VII Advent Children]]'' || [[Rufus Shinra]] || English dub <ref name="btva"/>
 
|2006 || ''[[Final Fantasy VII Advent Children]]'' || [[Rufus Shinra]] || English dub <ref name="btva"/>
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|2016 || ''[[Batman: Return of the Caped Crusaders]]'' || [[Riddler]] || rowspan=2|Direct-to-video
 
|2016 || ''[[Batman: Return of the Caped Crusaders]]'' || [[Riddler]] || rowspan=2|Direct-to-video
 
|-
 
|-
|2017 || ''[[Batman vs. Two-Face]]''|| [[Riddler]], [[King Tut (comics)|King Tut]]
+
|2017 || ''[[Batman vs. Two-Face]]''|| Riddler, [[King Tut (comics)|King Tut]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|2017 ||''[[Hey Arnold!: The Jungle Movie]]'' || Mr. Kokoshka, Dino Spumoni, Mr. Hyunh || Succeeding [[Baoan Coleman]], Rick Corso and [[Steve Viksten]]
 
|2017 ||''[[Hey Arnold!: The Jungle Movie]]'' || Mr. Kokoshka, Dino Spumoni, Mr. Hyunh || Succeeding [[Baoan Coleman]], Rick Corso and [[Steve Viksten]]

User talk:Flixtey

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

new pages to be reviewed: new section

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<small>Sent by [[m:User:MediaWiki message delivery|MediaWiki message delivery]] on behalf of The Wikipedia Library team --[[User:MediaWiki message delivery|MediaWiki message delivery]] ([[User talk:MediaWiki message delivery|talk]]) 14:34, 21 December 2018 (UTC)</small>
 
<small>Sent by [[m:User:MediaWiki message delivery|MediaWiki message delivery]] on behalf of The Wikipedia Library team --[[User:MediaWiki message delivery|MediaWiki message delivery]] ([[User talk:MediaWiki message delivery|talk]]) 14:34, 21 December 2018 (UTC)</small>
 
<!-- Message sent by User:UY Scuti@metawiki using the list at https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Wikipedia_Library/Newsletter/Recipients&oldid=18728950 -->
 
<!-- Message sent by User:UY Scuti@metawiki using the list at https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Wikipedia_Library/Newsletter/Recipients&oldid=18728950 -->
  +
  +
== new pages to be reviewed ==
  +
  +
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amal_habani
  +
i kindly forget who to link you there so iam posting the link

Modern yoga

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

top: spread

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'''Modern yoga''',{{efn|Perhaps the first use of the term "Modern yoga" was in the title of [[Ernest Wood]]'s 1948 book.<ref name="Wood 1948">{{cite book | last=Wood | first=Ernest E. |authorlink=Ernest Wood | title=Practical yoga, ancient and modern : being a new, independent translation of Patanjali's yoga aphorisms interpreted in the light of ancient and modern psychological knowledge and practical experience | publisher=Josephs Press [Wilshire Book Co, Rider and Co] | year=2015 | origyear=1948 | isbn=978-1-4465-2820-4 | oclc=285464424}}</ref>}}{{sfn|Singleton|2010|p=18}}{{sfn|De Michelis|2004|pp=1-2 and whole book}}{{efn|De Michelis 2004 introduced a typology<ref>The De Michelis 2004 typology can be seen at [https://docs.yuj.it/artefacts/yoga-as-linkage Yoga as Linkage].</ref> that rooted "Modern Yoga" in [[Vivekananda]]'s "Raja Yoga", leading to "Modern Psychosomatic Yoga" such as that of [[The Yoga Institute]]. A branch led to "Modern Denominational Yoga", such as that of [[ISKCON]], [[Sahaja Yoga]], or [[Brahma Kumaris]]. Another branch led to "Modern Postural Yoga" (like Iyengar Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga) and "Modern Meditational Yoga" such as early Transcendental Meditation. This article is broadly about her "Modern Postural Yoga"; it uses the term "modern yoga" in that sense, following Ernest Wood and others.}} also called modern postural yoga,<ref name="Domingues 2018">{{cite journal | last=Domingues | first=Rita B. | title=Modern postural yoga as a mental health promoting tool: A systematic review | journal=Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice | publisher=Elsevier BV | volume=31 | year=2018 | doi=10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.03.002 | pages=248–255}}</ref> modern transnational yoga,{{sfn|Brammer|2010|p=1}} or transnational anglophone yoga,<ref name="Singleton 2013">{{cite book |last=Singleton |first=Mark |editor=Beatrix Hauser |title=Transnational Exchange and the Genesis of Modern Postural Yoga |work=Yoga Traveling: Bodily Practice in Transcultural Perspective |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RcNDAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA38 |year=2013 |publisher=Springer |isbn=978-3319003153 |page=38}}</ref> is a physical activity consisting largely of postures called [[asana]]s, often connected by flowing sequences called [[vinyasa]]s, sometimes accompanied by the breathing exercises of [[pranayama]], and usually ending with a period of relaxation or [[meditation]]. It is often known simply as yoga,<ref name="De Michelis 2007"/> despite the existence of multiple older traditions of [[yoga]] within [[Hinduism]] where asanas played little or no part, some dating back over 2000 years to the ''[[Yoga Sutras]]'' of [[Patanjali]].
 
'''Modern yoga''',{{efn|Perhaps the first use of the term "Modern yoga" was in the title of [[Ernest Wood]]'s 1948 book.<ref name="Wood 1948">{{cite book | last=Wood | first=Ernest E. |authorlink=Ernest Wood | title=Practical yoga, ancient and modern : being a new, independent translation of Patanjali's yoga aphorisms interpreted in the light of ancient and modern psychological knowledge and practical experience | publisher=Josephs Press [Wilshire Book Co, Rider and Co] | year=2015 | origyear=1948 | isbn=978-1-4465-2820-4 | oclc=285464424}}</ref>}}{{sfn|Singleton|2010|p=18}}{{sfn|De Michelis|2004|pp=1-2 and whole book}}{{efn|De Michelis 2004 introduced a typology<ref>The De Michelis 2004 typology can be seen at [https://docs.yuj.it/artefacts/yoga-as-linkage Yoga as Linkage].</ref> that rooted "Modern Yoga" in [[Vivekananda]]'s "Raja Yoga", leading to "Modern Psychosomatic Yoga" such as that of [[The Yoga Institute]]. A branch led to "Modern Denominational Yoga", such as that of [[ISKCON]], [[Sahaja Yoga]], or [[Brahma Kumaris]]. Another branch led to "Modern Postural Yoga" (like Iyengar Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga) and "Modern Meditational Yoga" such as early Transcendental Meditation. This article is broadly about her "Modern Postural Yoga"; it uses the term "modern yoga" in that sense, following Ernest Wood and others.}} also called modern postural yoga,<ref name="Domingues 2018">{{cite journal | last=Domingues | first=Rita B. | title=Modern postural yoga as a mental health promoting tool: A systematic review | journal=Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice | publisher=Elsevier BV | volume=31 | year=2018 | doi=10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.03.002 | pages=248–255}}</ref> modern transnational yoga,{{sfn|Brammer|2010|p=1}} or transnational anglophone yoga,<ref name="Singleton 2013">{{cite book |last=Singleton |first=Mark |editor=Beatrix Hauser |title=Transnational Exchange and the Genesis of Modern Postural Yoga |work=Yoga Traveling: Bodily Practice in Transcultural Perspective |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RcNDAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA38 |year=2013 |publisher=Springer |isbn=978-3319003153 |page=38}}</ref> is a physical activity consisting largely of postures called [[asana]]s, often connected by flowing sequences called [[vinyasa]]s, sometimes accompanied by the breathing exercises of [[pranayama]], and usually ending with a period of relaxation or [[meditation]]. It is often known simply as yoga,<ref name="De Michelis 2007"/> despite the existence of multiple older traditions of [[yoga]] within [[Hinduism]] where asanas played little or no part, some dating back over 2000 years to the ''[[Yoga Sutras]]'' of [[Patanjali]].
   
Modern yoga was created by the blending<!--Singleton has "postural yoga's dialogical relationship with modern physical culture", i.e. not simple addition or borrowing but some kind of two-way process--> of Western styles of gymnastics with postures from [[Haṭha yoga]] in India in the 20th century. Before 1900 there were few standing poses in Haṭha yoga. The flowing sequences of salute to the sun, [[Surya Namaskar]], were pioneered by the Rajah of Aundh, Bhawanrao Shrinivasrao Pant Pratinidhi, in the 1920s.<ref name="ET 2018">{{cite news |last1=Doctor |first1=Vikram |title=Bhawanrao Shrinivasrao Pant Pratinidhi: The man who promoted Surya Namaskar |url=https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/bhawanrao-shrinivasrao-pant-pratinidhi-the-man-who-promoted-surya-namaskar/articleshow/64607546.cms |work=The Economic Times (India) |date=15 June 2018}}</ref> Many standing poses used in gymnastics were incorporated into yoga by [[Krishnamacharya]] in Mysore from the 1930s to the 1950s. Several of his students went on to found influential schools of yoga: [[Pattabhi Jois]] created [[Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga]], which in turn led to [[Power Yoga]]; [[B. K. S. Iyengar]] created [[Iyengar Yoga]], and systematised the canon of asanas in his 1966 book ''[[Light on Yoga]]''; [[Indra Devi]] taught yoga to many film stars in Hollywood; and Krishnamacharya's son [[T. K. V. Desikachar]] founded the Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandalam in [[Chennai]]. Other major schools founded in the 20th century include [[Bikram Choudhury]]'s [[Bikram Yoga]] and [[Swami Sivananda]] of [[Rishikesh]]'s [[Sivananda Yoga|Sivananda Vedanta Schools of Yoga]].
+
Modern yoga was created by the blending<!--Singleton has "postural yoga's dialogical relationship with modern physical culture", i.e. not simple addition or borrowing but some kind of two-way process--> of Western styles of gymnastics with postures from [[Haṭha yoga]] in India in the 20th century. Before 1900 there were few standing poses in Haṭha yoga. The flowing sequences of salute to the sun, [[Surya Namaskar]], were pioneered by the Rajah of Aundh, Bhawanrao Shrinivasrao Pant Pratinidhi, in the 1920s.<ref name="ET 2018">{{cite news |last1=Doctor |first1=Vikram |title=Bhawanrao Shrinivasrao Pant Pratinidhi: The man who promoted Surya Namaskar |url=https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/bhawanrao-shrinivasrao-pant-pratinidhi-the-man-who-promoted-surya-namaskar/articleshow/64607546.cms |work=The Economic Times (India) |date=15 June 2018}}</ref> Many standing poses used in gymnastics were incorporated into yoga by [[Krishnamacharya]] in Mysore from the 1930s to the 1950s. Several of his students went on to found influential schools of yoga: [[Pattabhi Jois]] created [[Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga]], which in turn led to [[Power Yoga]]; [[B. K. S. Iyengar]] created [[Iyengar Yoga]], and systematised the canon of asanas in his 1966 book ''[[Light on Yoga]]''; [[Indra Devi]] taught yoga to many film stars in Hollywood; and Krishnamacharya's son [[T. K. V. Desikachar]] founded the Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandalam in [[Chennai]]. Other major schools founded in the 20th century include [[Bikram Choudhury]]'s [[Bikram Yoga]] and [[Swami Sivananda]] of [[Rishikesh]]'s [[Sivananda Yoga|Sivananda Vedanta Schools of Yoga]]. Modern yoga spread across America and Europe, and then the rest of the world.
   
 
The number of asanas used in modern yoga has increased rapidly from a nominal 84 in 1830, as illustrated in ''Joga Pradipika'', to some 200 in ''Light on Yoga'' and over 900 performed by [[Dharma Mittra]] by 1984. At the same time, the goals of Haṭha yoga, namely spiritual liberation ([[moksha]]) through the raising of [[kundalini]], were largely replaced by the goals of fitness and relaxation, while many of Haṭha yoga's components like [[shatkarma]]s, [[Bandha (Yoga)|bandhas]], [[mudra]]s and pranayama were much reduced or removed entirely.
 
The number of asanas used in modern yoga has increased rapidly from a nominal 84 in 1830, as illustrated in ''Joga Pradipika'', to some 200 in ''Light on Yoga'' and over 900 performed by [[Dharma Mittra]] by 1984. At the same time, the goals of Haṭha yoga, namely spiritual liberation ([[moksha]]) through the raising of [[kundalini]], were largely replaced by the goals of fitness and relaxation, while many of Haṭha yoga's components like [[shatkarma]]s, [[Bandha (Yoga)|bandhas]], [[mudra]]s and pranayama were much reduced or removed entirely.

Hoodie SZN

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

Updated chart position on Hot 100

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''Hoodie SZN'' debuted at number two on the US [[Billboard 200|''Billboard'' 200]] with 90,000 [[album-equivalent unit]]s (including 6,000 pure album sales). It is A Boogie wit da Hoodie's second US top 10 album and his highest-peaking of the two.<ref name="BB200">{{cite web|url=https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/chart-beat/8491748/21-savages-i-am-i-was-album-debuts-at-no-1-on-billboard-200|title=21 Savage's 'I Am > I Was' Album Debuts at No. 1 on Billboard 200 Chart|work=Billboard|last=Caulfield|first=Keith|date=December 30, 2018|accessdate=December 31, 2018}}</ref>
 
''Hoodie SZN'' debuted at number two on the US [[Billboard 200|''Billboard'' 200]] with 90,000 [[album-equivalent unit]]s (including 6,000 pure album sales). It is A Boogie wit da Hoodie's second US top 10 album and his highest-peaking of the two.<ref name="BB200">{{cite web|url=https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/chart-beat/8491748/21-savages-i-am-i-was-album-debuts-at-no-1-on-billboard-200|title=21 Savage's 'I Am > I Was' Album Debuts at No. 1 on Billboard 200 Chart|work=Billboard|last=Caulfield|first=Keith|date=December 30, 2018|accessdate=December 31, 2018}}</ref>
   
Four songs from ''Hoodie SZN'' charted on the US [[Billboard Hot 100|''Billboard'' Hot 100]], including the [[6ix9ine]]-assited track, "Swerving", peaking at #57, becoming the highest-charting song from the album.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.billboard.com/music/a-boogie-wit-da-hoodie|title=A Boogie wit da Hoodie Chart History|website=Billboard|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref>
+
Four songs from ''Hoodie SZN'' charted on the US [[Billboard Hot 100|''Billboard'' Hot 100]], including the [[6ix9ine]]-assited track, "Swerving", peaking at #38, becoming the highest-charting song from the album.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.billboard.com/music/a-boogie-wit-da-hoodie|title=A Boogie wit da Hoodie Chart History|website=Billboard|access-date=2019-01-07}}</ref>
   
 
==Track listing==
 
==Track listing==

Psycho (2018 film)

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

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|cinematography=P. C. Sriram
 
|cinematography=P. C. Sriram
 
}}
 
}}
'''''Psycho''''' is an upcoming Tamil [[psychological thriller]] film by [[Mysskin]]. The film's music is composed by [[Ilaiyaraaja]] and the cinematography is handled by [[P. C. Sreeram]], collaborating for the first time with [[Mysskin]].<ref>{{cite news |last1=Lakshmi |first1=V |title=Udhayanidhi turns 'psycho' for Mysskin - Times of India |url=https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/tamil/movies/news/udhayanidhi-turns-psycho-for-mysskin/articleshow/65645187.cms |accessdate=7 September 2018 |work=The Times of India |date=3 Sep 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Psycho is Mysskin's next, stars Udhayanidhi Stalin, Aditi Rao Hydari, Nithya Menen |url=https://indianexpress.com/article/entertainment/tamil/psycho-mysskins-udhayanidhi-stalin-aditi-rao-hydari-nithya-menen-5339221/ |accessdate=7 September 2018 |work=The Indian Express |date=4 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Udhayanidhi Stalin to play an intense role in his next with Mysskin |url=https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/udhayanidhi-stalin-play-intense-role-his-next-mysskin-87743 |accessdate=7 September 2018 |work=The News Minute |date=3 September 2018}}</ref> The film is produced by [[Udhayanidhi Stalin]], who also stars in the lead role. The film will also feature [[Nithya Menen]], [[Aditi Rao Hydari]], [[Ram (director)|Ram]] and [[Shaji Chen]]. The project was launched in September 2018, and will be released on April 2019
+
'''''Psycho''''' is an upcoming Tamil [[psychological thriller]] film directed by [[Mysskin]]. The film's music is composed by [[Ilaiyaraaja]] and the cinematography is handled by [[P. C. Sreeram]], collaborating for the first time with [[Mysskin]].<ref>{{cite news |last1=Lakshmi |first1=V |title=Udhayanidhi turns 'psycho' for Mysskin - Times of India |url=https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/tamil/movies/news/udhayanidhi-turns-psycho-for-mysskin/articleshow/65645187.cms |accessdate=7 September 2018 |work=The Times of India |date=3 Sep 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Psycho is Mysskin's next, stars Udhayanidhi Stalin, Aditi Rao Hydari, Nithya Menen |url=https://indianexpress.com/article/entertainment/tamil/psycho-mysskins-udhayanidhi-stalin-aditi-rao-hydari-nithya-menen-5339221/ |accessdate=7 September 2018 |work=The Indian Express |date=4 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Udhayanidhi Stalin to play an intense role in his next with Mysskin |url=https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/udhayanidhi-stalin-play-intense-role-his-next-mysskin-87743 |accessdate=7 September 2018 |work=The News Minute |date=3 September 2018}}</ref> The film is produced by [[Udhayanidhi Stalin]], who also stars in the lead role. The film will also feature [[Nithya Menen]], [[Aditi Rao Hydari]], [[Ram (director)|Ram]] and [[Shaji Chen]]. The project was launched in September 2018, and will be released on April 2019
   
 
==Cast==
 
==Cast==

Justin Hurwitz

Posted: 08 Jan 2019 12:43 AM PST

disruptive edits removed

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{{Infobox person
 
{{Infobox person
| name = Justin Hurwitz
+
| name = Justin Hurwitz
| image = Justin Hurwitz (30116702391) (cropped).jpg
+
| image =Justin Hurwitz (30116702391) (cropped).jpg
| caption = Hurwitz in 2016
+
| caption = Hurwitz in 2016
| birthname = Justin Gabriel Hurwitz<ref name="CA-Birth">{{cite web
+
| birthname = Justin Gabriel Hurwitz<ref name="CA-Birth">{{cite web
 
|url-access=subscription|url=http://www.ancestry.com
 
|url-access=subscription|url=http://www.ancestry.com
 
|title=California Birth Index, 1905-1995 (Database online)
 
|title=California Birth Index, 1905-1995 (Database online)
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|access-date=2 Aug 2017
 
|access-date=2 Aug 2017
 
|quote= }}</ref>
 
|quote= }}</ref>
| birth_date = {{birth date and age|1985|01|22}}<ref name="CA-Birth"/>
+
| birth_date = {{birth date and age|1985|01|22}}<ref name="CA-Birth"/>
| birth_place = [[Los Angeles County, California]], U.S.<ref name="CA-Birth"/>
+
| birth_place = [[Los Angeles County, California]], U.S.<ref name="CA-Birth"/>
| death_date =
+
| death_date =
| death_place =
+
| death_place =
| education = [[Nicolet High School]]
+
| education = [[Nicolet High School]]
| alma_mater = [[Harvard University]]
+
| alma_mater = [[Harvard University]]
| occupation = Composer, screenwriter, Death
+
| occupation = Composer, screenwriter
| known_for =
+
| known_for =
| alias =
+
| alias =
| status =
+
| status =
| title =
+
| title =
| family =
+
| family =
| spouse =
+
| spouse =
| children =
+
| children =
| parents = Ken Hurwitz<br> Gail Hurwitz
+
| parents = Ken Hurwitz<br> Gail Hurwitz
| relatives =
+
| relatives =
| salary =
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| salary =
| networth =
+
| networth =
| credits =
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| credits =
| agent =
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| agent =
| URL =
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| URL =
 
}}
 
}}
   
'''Justin Gabriel Hurwitz''' (born January 22, 1985)<ref name="CA-Birth"/><ref name=JWeekly>[http://www.jweekly.com/2017/02/13/the-tribe-goes-to-the-oscars/ Jewish Weekly: "The tribe goes to the Oscars"] by Nate Bloom. February 13, 2017.</ref> is an American film composer, television writer, and works part-time as Death, as is indicated by his posture, dead shark-eyes, and large beak. He is best known for scoring the 2016 film ''[[La La Land (film)|La La Land]]''.<ref name="deadline.com">{{cite web |url= http://deadline.com/2016/12/emma-stone-la-la-land-damien-chazelle-justin-hurwitz-oscars-interview-1201866006/ |title=How 'La La Land' Director Damien Chazelle, His Team & Lionsgate Faced the Music & Resurrected the Original Hollywood Musical |last= D'Alessandro |first=Anthony |date= December 10, 2016 |website=[[Deadline Hollywood]] |accessdate= December 12, 2016}}</ref><ref name="yahoo_news">{{cite web |url= https://ca.news.yahoo.com/moonlight-named-best-picture-by-l-a-film-critics-032417581.html |title= 'Moonlight' Named Best Picture by L.A. Film Critics |work=[[Yahoo!]] |accessdate= December 12, 2016}}</ref><ref name="atlantic">{{cite web |url= https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/12/la-la-land-review-damien-chazelle-ryan-gosling-emma-stone/510092/ |title= The Novelty and Nostalgia of 'La La Land'|last=Orr|first=Christopher |date= December 9, 2016 |work=[[The Atlantic]] |accessdate= December 12, 2016}}</ref><ref name="wheretowatch">{{cite news |url= https://www.wheretowatch.com/2014/09/whiplash-composer-justin-hurwitz-settles-the-score |title= Whiplash Composer Justin Hurwitz Settles the Score |date=September 23, 2014 |author=Bryan Abrams |work= wheretowatch.com }}</ref> He also scored [[Damien Chazelle]]'s three other features, ''[[First Man (film)|First Man]]'', ''[[Guy and Madeline on a Park Bench]]'', and ''[[Whiplash (2014 film)|Whiplash]]''.
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'''Justin Gabriel Hurwitz''' (born January 22, 1985)<ref name="CA-Birth"/><ref name=JWeekly>[http://www.jweekly.com/2017/02/13/the-tribe-goes-to-the-oscars/ Jewish Weekly: "The tribe goes to the Oscars"] by Nate Bloom. February 13, 2017.</ref> is an American film composer and a television writer. He is best known for scoring the 2016 film ''[[La La Land (film)|La La Land]]''.<ref name="deadline.com">{{cite web |url= http://deadline.com/2016/12/emma-stone-la-la-land-damien-chazelle-justin-hurwitz-oscars-interview-1201866006/ |title=How 'La La Land' Director Damien Chazelle, His Team & Lionsgate Faced the Music & Resurrected the Original Hollywood Musical |last= D'Alessandro |first=Anthony |date= December 10, 2016 |website=[[Deadline Hollywood]] |accessdate= December 12, 2016}}</ref><ref name="yahoo_news">{{cite web |url= https://ca.news.yahoo.com/moonlight-named-best-picture-by-l-a-film-critics-032417581.html |title= 'Moonlight' Named Best Picture by L.A. Film Critics |work=[[Yahoo!]] |accessdate= December 12, 2016}}</ref><ref name="atlantic">{{cite web |url= https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2016/12/la-la-land-review-damien-chazelle-ryan-gosling-emma-stone/510092/ |title= The Novelty and Nostalgia of 'La La Land'|last=Orr|first=Christopher |date= December 9, 2016 |work=[[The Atlantic]] |accessdate= December 12, 2016}}</ref><ref name="wheretowatch">{{cite news |url= https://www.wheretowatch.com/2014/09/whiplash-composer-justin-hurwitz-settles-the-score |title= Whiplash Composer Justin Hurwitz Settles the Score |date=September 23, 2014 |author=Bryan Abrams |work= wheretowatch.com }}</ref> He also scored [[Damien Chazelle]]'s three other features, ''[[First Man (film)|First Man]]'', ''[[Guy and Madeline on a Park Bench]]'', and ''[[Whiplash (2014 film)|Whiplash]]''.
   
 
For ''La La Land'', he won two [[Academy Awards]]: [[Academy Award for Best Original Score|Best Original Score]] and [[Academy Award for Best Original Song|Best Original Song]] (for "[[City of Stars]]") as well as the [[Golden Globe Award]]s for [[Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score|Best Original Score]] and [[Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song|Best Original Song]] (for "[[City of Stars]]"), and the [[BAFTA Award for Best Film Music]].<ref>{{cite web |title= Justin Hurwitz wins best original score in a motion picture at Golden Globes |url=http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/justin-hurwitz-wins-best-original-score-a-motion-picture-golden-globes-2017-960450 |work= [[The Hollywood Reporter]]}}</ref>
 
For ''La La Land'', he won two [[Academy Awards]]: [[Academy Award for Best Original Score|Best Original Score]] and [[Academy Award for Best Original Song|Best Original Song]] (for "[[City of Stars]]") as well as the [[Golden Globe Award]]s for [[Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score|Best Original Score]] and [[Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song|Best Original Song]] (for "[[City of Stars]]"), and the [[BAFTA Award for Best Film Music]].<ref>{{cite web |title= Justin Hurwitz wins best original score in a motion picture at Golden Globes |url=http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/justin-hurwitz-wins-best-original-score-a-motion-picture-golden-globes-2017-960450 |work= [[The Hollywood Reporter]]}}</ref>
   
 
== Early life ==
 
== Early life ==
Hurwitz was born in California,<ref name="CA-Birth"/> the son of Gail (née Halabe),<ref name="CA-Birth"/> a professional ballet dancer turned registered nurse, and Ken Hurwitz, a writer.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.jweekly.com/2017/02/13/the-tribe-goes-to-the-oscars/|title=The tribe goes to the Oscars|last=Bloom|first=Nate|date=February 13, 2017|work=[[J. The Jewish News of Northern California]]|accessdate=June 5, 2018}}</ref><ref name=NoCal>[http://www.jweekly.com/2017/02/27/jews-go-to-the-oscars-justin-hurwitzs-proud-marin-mom-etc/ Jewish News of Northern California: "News go to the Oscars; Justin Hurwitz's proud Marin mom; etc."] by Nate Bloom. February 27, 2017 |''"Both my children are very proud of their Middle Eastern heritage and culture"''</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.jsonline.com/story/entertainment/music/2017/02/17/la-la-lands-justin-hurwitz-composing-music-lifelong-obsession/98029448/|title=Oscar-nominated 'La La Land' composer Justin Hurwitz got his start in Milwaukee|last=Levy|first=Piet|date=February 17, 2017|work=[[Milwaukee Journal Sentinel]]|access-date=June 5, 2018|language=}}</ref> His family is [[American Jews|Jewish]] (from Russia, Poland, [[Damascus]] in [[Syria]], and [[Beirut]] in [[Lebanon]]).<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://jewishstandard.timesofisrael.com/the-tribe-goes-to-the-oscars-2017/|title=The tribe goes to the Oscars, 2017|last=Bloom|first=Nate|date=February 23, 2017|work=Jewish Standard|access-date=May 20, 2018}}</ref><ref>[http://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/la-la-land-who-knew-it-was-so-jewish/ Times of Israel: "La La Land: Who knew it was so Jewish" by Francine Wolfsiz] February 27, 2017</ref><ref>[http://www.jpost.com/Diaspora/Most-Jewish-talent-Trump-lose-at-Golden-Globe-awards-477890 Jerusalem Post: "HOW DID JEWISH TALENT FARE AT THE GOLDEN GLOBES?"] January 9, 2017</ref><ref>[http://www.jta.org/2017/02/23/arts-entertainment/oscars-2017-7-unexpected-jewish-facts Jewish Telegraph Agency: "Oscars 2017: 7 unexpected Jewish facts" By Gabe Friedman] February 23, 2017</ref><ref>[http://www.jewishledger.com/2017/01/la-la-lands-jewish-composer-nominated-oscar/ Connecticut Jewish Ledger: "La La Land's Jewish composer nominated for Oscar"] January 25th, 2017</ref> His family moved to Wisconsin in 1998<ref name=NoCal /> where he attended [[Nicolet High School]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.jsonline.com/story/entertainment/movies/2017/01/08/nicolets-justin-hurwitz-wins-2-golden-globes/96325914/ |title= Nicolet's Justin Hurwitz wins 2 Golden Globes |date= January 9, 2017 |author= Chris Foran |work= [[Milwaukee Journal Sentinel]]}}</ref><ref>[http://www.tmj4.com/news/local-news/nicolet-hs-graduate-wins-2-golden-globes-for-la-la-land TMJ4 News: "Nicolet HS graduate Justin Hurwitz wins 2 Golden Globes for 'La La Land'" by Brandon Rook] January 9, 2017</ref>
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Hurwitz was born in California,<ref name="CA-Birth"/> the son of Gail (née Halabe),<ref name="CA-Birth"/> a professional ballet dancer turned registered nurse, and Ken Hurwitz, a writer.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.jweekly.com/2017/02/13/the-tribe-goes-to-the-oscars/|title=The tribe goes to the Oscars|last=Bloom|first=Nate|date=February 13, 2017|work=[[J. The Jewish News of Northern California]]|accessdate=June 5, 2018}}</ref><ref name=NoCal>[http://www.jweekly.com/2017/02/27/jews-go-to-the-oscars-justin-hurwitzs-proud-marin-mom-etc/ Jewish News of Northern California: "News go to the Oscars; Justin Hurwitz's proud Marin mom; etc."] by Nate Bloom. February 27, 2017 |''"Both my children are very proud of their Middle Eastern heritage and culture"''</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.jsonline.com/story/entertainment/music/2017/02/17/la-la-lands-justin-hurwitz-composing-music-lifelong-obsession/98029448/|title=Oscar-nominated 'La La Land' composer Justin Hurwitz got his start in Milwaukee|last=Levy|first=Piet|date=February 17, 2017|work=[[Milwaukee Journal Sentinel]]|access-date=June 5, 2018|language=}}</ref> His family is [[American Jews|Jewish]] (from Russia, Poland, [[Damascus]] in [[Syria]], and [[Beirut]] in [[Lebanon]]).<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://jewishstandard.timesofisrael.com/the-tribe-goes-to-the-oscars-2017/|title=The tribe goes to the Oscars, 2017|last=Bloom|first=Nate|date=February 23, 2017|work=Jewish Standard|access-date=May 20, 2018}}</ref><ref>[http://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/la-la-land-who-knew-it-was-so-jewish/ Times of Israel: "La La Land: Who knew it was so Jewish" by Francine Wolfsiz] February 27, 2017</ref><ref>[http://www.jpost.com/Diaspora/Most-Jewish-talent-Trump-lose-at-Golden-Globe-awards-477890 Jerusalem Post: "HOW DID JEWISH TALENT FARE AT THE GOLDEN GLOBES?"] January 9, 2017</ref><ref>[http://www.jta.org/2017/02/23/arts-entertainment/oscars-2017-7-unexpected-jewish-facts Jewish Telegraph Agency: "Oscars 2017: 7 unexpected Jewish facts" By Gabe Friedman] February 23, 2017</ref><ref>[http://www.jewishledger.com/2017/01/la-la-lands-jewish-composer-nominated-oscar/ Connecticut Jewish Ledger: "La La Land's Jewish composer nominated for Oscar"] January 25th, 2017</ref> His family moved to Wisconsin in 1998<ref name=NoCal /> where he attended [[Nicolet High School]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.jsonline.com/story/entertainment/movies/2017/01/08/nicolets-justin-hurwitz-wins-2-golden-globes/96325914/ |title= Nicolet's Justin Hurwitz wins 2 Golden Globes |date= January 9, 2017 |author= Chris Foran |work= [[Milwaukee Journal Sentinel]]}}</ref><ref>[http://www.tmj4.com/news/local-news/nicolet-hs-graduate-wins-2-golden-globes-for-la-la-land TMJ4 News: "Nicolet HS graduate Justin Hurwitz wins 2 Golden Globes for 'La La Land'" by Brandon Rook] January 9, 2017</ref>
   
Hurwitz attended [[Harvard University]], where director [[Damien Chazelle]] found him living under a bridge.<ref>http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/01/harvard-and-its-la-la-land-connection</ref> He collaborated on a student film that would become ''[[Guy and Madeline on a Park Bench]]'', which was released in 2009.<ref name=NoCal /><ref name="wheretowatch" /> While in school Hurwitz was a member of the ''[[Harvard Lampoon|Harvard Lampoon,]]'' where he was known for his high standard of comedy and his diet, which consists of canned food exclusively. He only laughs through long, high-pitched shrieks and was an original member of the indie-pop band [[Chester French]] with Chazelle.<ref name="Allmusic">{{cite web|url={{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p1024525|pure_url=yes}}|title=Chester French - Biography|last=Phares|first=Heather|work=[[Allmusic]]|accessdate=2009-07-15}}</ref>
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Hurwitz attended [[Harvard University]], where he was roommates with director [[Damien Chazelle]].<ref>http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2017/01/harvard-and-its-la-la-land-connection</ref> They collaborated on a student film that would become ''[[Guy and Madeline on a Park Bench]]'', which was released in 2009.<ref name=NoCal /><ref name="wheretowatch" /> While in school Hurwitz was a member of the ''[[Harvard Lampoon]]'' and was an original member of the indie-pop band [[Chester French]] with Chazelle.<ref name="Allmusic">{{cite web|url={{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p1024525|pure_url=yes}}|title=Chester French - Biography|last=Phares|first=Heather|work=[[Allmusic]]|accessdate=2009-07-15}}</ref>
   
 
== Career ==
 
== Career ==
 
After college, Hurwitz and Chazelle moved to Los Angeles where Hurwitz wrote comedy for the sitcom ''[[The League]]'' and one episode of ''[[The Simpsons]]''.<ref name=NoCal /> Thanks to the success of ''Guy and Madeline'', they were able to obtain financing for their next collaboration, the 2014 film ''[[Whiplash (2014 film)|Whiplash]]'' – with Hurwitz scoring the film and Chazelle writing and directing.<ref name=NoCal /> ''Whiplash'' won three Oscars.<ref name=NoCal />
 
After college, Hurwitz and Chazelle moved to Los Angeles where Hurwitz wrote comedy for the sitcom ''[[The League]]'' and one episode of ''[[The Simpsons]]''.<ref name=NoCal /> Thanks to the success of ''Guy and Madeline'', they were able to obtain financing for their next collaboration, the 2014 film ''[[Whiplash (2014 film)|Whiplash]]'' – with Hurwitz scoring the film and Chazelle writing and directing.<ref name=NoCal /> ''Whiplash'' won three Oscars.<ref name=NoCal />
Hurwitz also scored Chazelle's 2016 film ''[[La La Land (film)|La La Land]]'', for which Chazelle won the Oscar for [[Academy Award for Best Director|Best Director]] and Hurwitz won two Oscars for [[Academy Award for Best Original Score|Best Original Score]] and [[Academy Award for Best Original Song|Best Original Song]].
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Hurwitz also scored Chazelle's 2016 film ''[[La La Land (film)|La La Land]]'', for which Chazelle won the Oscar for [[Academy Award for Best Director|Best Director]] and Hurwitz won two Oscars for [[Academy Award for Best Original Score|Best Original Score]] and [[Academy Award for Best Original Song|Best Original Song]].
   
 
==Filmography==
 
==Filmography==