Posted: 17 Jan 2019 04:30 AM PST
As the nineteenth century drew to a close, Naturalist painting fell from favour. By the opening years of the new century, it was all but dead, and the few remaining Naturalists were shunned and scorned for not moving with the times. This article looks at what happened, and why works which were all the rage at the Salon in the 1880s fell from grace.
One important factor was the Salon itself. Although not termed a secession in the way that Berlin, Munich and Vienna experienced, in 1890-91 the Paris Salon split into two, with the new Salon du Champ de Mars competing with the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français, which had been pre-eminent. In 1903, this split again with the Salon d’Automne. Although these provided much better opportunities for new artists and movements, they are likely to have weakened their more general appeal.
Other movements, Impressionism in particular, had become more prominent. Although some argue that Impressionism was a form of Naturalism, or closely related, its popular themes and more painterly style were contrasting.
Those looking for objective accounts of contemporary society were turning increasingly to photography, which quickly grew the (entirely unfounded) reputation for absolute fidelity. Just as Naturalism had exploited our tendency to believe images which appear most real and ‘true to life’, so the photographer became a trusted reporter.
By the end of the century, many of those who had been in the vanguard of Naturalism were growing old, or had already died. The very early deaths of Jules Bastien-Lepage and his brilliant young protégé Marie Bashkirtseff in 1884 had been major losses.
Those who survived seemed to come out of the other side of Naturalism, and paint for different viewers and markets.
In Denmark, LA Ring still painted his Naturalist masterpiece of Father Coming Home in 1896, but few of his later paintings depicted such rural poverty.
The following year, At the French Windows. The Artist’s Wife appealed much more to the aesthetics of the wealthier and increasingly urban classes. Although a superb painting, it marked his departure from tackling social issues in the Danish countryside, and those of its undervalued skilled workers.
His friend Hans Andersen Brendekilde switched at the same time. Here’s his Melting Snow from 1895 showing the harsh reality of rural deprivation.
The following year, Brendekilde painted the lush sunshine of Spring. A Young Couple in a Rowing Boat on Odense Å, which shows a totally different world.
In France, the younger Émile Friant had painted The Frugal Meal in 1894, showing a poor family with four daughters sitting down to a meal consisting only of a bowl piled high with potatoes.
The following year came Friant’s The Small Boat, an idealistic view of a young couple dressed in immaculate whites sailing below cliffs, with a dreamlike softness to the sails.
By now one of the senior Naturalists, Léon Lhermitte completed Les Halles in 1895, with its links to Émile Zola’s Naturalist novel Le Ventre de Paris (1873).
Lhermitte never really abandoned Naturalism, which still lives in his Peasant Woman Resting from 1903. This woman’s distant and forlorn look could easily be a reflection on his earlier success.
José Uría y Uría’s After a Strike from 1895 is an exceptional work for its time, tackling issues of strikes and their violent consequences. It is also the last of Uría’s paintings which I am able to locate, although he was only 34, and lived for another 42 years.
Fernand Pelez, who had painted the poor and homeless so vividly, struggled to retain any interest in his work.
Pelez painted six different versions of The Little Lemon Vendor between about 1895-97, none of which was shown in a Salon, despite its compelling imagery. He became a recluse, and abandoned painting.
Another of the Nordic Naturalists, Christian Krohg, was more reluctant to abandon the cause, either of painting or his social campaigning through art.
In 1895, Krohg painted one of his more enigmatic works, but a throwback to his social narratives: Eyewitnesses. Set among fisher folk similar to those of the remote community of Skagen of his early career, one reading of this ‘problem picture’ is that the men have brought news of the loss at sea of the woman’s husband, an event of which they were eyewitnesses.
Krohg also returned to his major theme of the fallen woman and prostitution. In 1917, he produced a new compositional sketch for his famous Albertine in the Police Doctor’s Waiting Room which he felt addressed the earlier painting’s theatricality.
As late as 1921, he painted Seamstress’s Christmas Eve, which revisits his longstanding theme of young country women coming to the city to sew, falling into debt, and ending up as prostitutes.
The last image on Naturalism should also come from Krohg, who just a year or so before his death in 1925 shows himself asleep in a chair under a pendulum clock, the time in its title being Five to Twelve.
By then, painting had turned in on itself and lost most of its public in a orgy of Cubism, Fauvism, and many other impenetrable forms of modernism. Popular images were photographs, which could never lie.
Posted: 16 Jan 2019 11:30 PM PST
If you’ve decided that your app does need to be signed, and are now equipped with any certificate(s) which you might need, how do you go about signing it?
Ad hoc signing
For all my misgivings over the (lack of) benefits of ad hoc signing, it is very easy to do. If you’ve decided that this is the way ahead, then all you have to do is build the app and type the following into Terminal:
Signing with a personal certificate
If you have created your own personal certificate and want to use that to sign your app, you’ll need to know the ‘common name’ of your certificate. Check this in Keychain Access, and you’ll find that it’s the name that you gave to your certificate when you created it. The required command becomes:
Instead of the hyphen
Signing in Xcode
Xcode is designed to work with Developer IDs and certificates supplied by Apple. Although you can create your own identity and add your personal certificate to it, if you’re using Xcode to manage signing you should really sign up as a developer.
When you do that, you’ll need to add your Developer ID to the list of Apple IDs in the Accounts tab of Xcode’s preferences. For some reason, I have ended up with a ‘personal team’ with the role of user, and my own team as an Agent. My signatures are associated with the latter. When I select it in the list of ‘teams’ and click on the Manage Certificates… button, I can obtain and view all my certificates.
For basic macOS development, there are three different certificates which you’re likely to use:
You can obtain these directly from the + tool at the foot of this dialog, which is simplest, or online through your developer account.
When you create a new project in Xcode, by default its signing should be set to automatic management, which should in theory work fine. For some reason, mine seems to set the wrong account, and I end up building apps with broken signatures. So I set mine to manual management, selecting the Team and Signing Certificate to use.
Then, during the last part of each build and prior to uploading for notarization, Xcode will automatically ensure all my apps and builds are correctly signed using the selected certificate.
If you are only building the occasional one-off app using Xcode, particularly if you’re using a personal certificate, it is usually simplest to sign it yourself using
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