Scientists develop way to perform supercomputer simulations of the heart on cellphones

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 12:15 PM PDT

You can now perform supercomputer simulations of the heart's electrophysiology in real time on desktop computers and even cellphones. A team of scientists developed a new approach that can not only help diagnose heart conditions and test new treatments, but pushes the boundaries of cardiac science by opening up a floodgate of new cardiac research and education.

Can a protein in cord blood predict risk of death, cerebral palsy in preterm infants?

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 11:42 AM PDT

Researchers have found that some preterm babies born without haptoglobin, a protein in blood cells, have higher odds of brain bleeding, cerebral palsy and death. Their findings suggest that the absence of the protein could serve as a potential biomarker indicating a need for increased monitoring or other preventive interventions.

Kicking goals for kids with autism

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 10:02 AM PDT

Researchers are turning autism interventions on their head with a stand-out sports program that's training coaches how to best achieve results for students with autism.

Researchers find ancient Maya farms in Mexican wetlands

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 10:01 AM PDT

Archaeologists used the latest technology to find evidence suggesting ancient Maya people grew surplus crops to support an active trade with neighbors up and down the Yucatan Peninsula. The extensive croplands suggest the ancient Maya could grow surplus crops, especially the cotton responsible for the renowned textiles that were traded throughout Mesoamerica.

New methodology enables solid state lighting to measure and self-adjust based on conditions

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 10:01 AM PDT

Researchers announce a two-pronged approach to both measure and self-adjust the spectral power distributions (SPDs) of LED lighting systems. Their methodology demonstrates the system's ability to maintain consistency and stability over an extended period of time.

People can survive organ failure, a review explores how

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 10:01 AM PDT

Although organ failure can be fatal, your kidneys, heart, and liver are prepared for this catastrophe. Emerging research supports the finding that two cell populations quickly respond and work together to restore a non-functioning, or failing, organ. First, the surviving cells go into overdrive, working to keep the organ functioning while stem-like cells replace damaged tissue. A Review explores how this dual-response can save lives.

White sharks have high levels of mercury, arsenic and lead in their blood

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 10:01 AM PDT

Researchers found high concentrations of mercury, arsenic, and lead, in blood samples obtained from Great white sharks in South Africa. The samples had levels that would be considered toxic to many animals.

Helping dairy farms reduce nitrogen, save money

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 07:01 AM PDT

The Chesapeake Bay -- about 235 miles down the Susquehanna River from New York's Southern Tier -- and other waterways might grow cleaner, thanks to new updates and improvements in a Cornell dairy nutrition model.

Just add heat to open this tiny box

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 06:38 AM PDT

Researchers have designed two types of nano-sized building blocks that can automatically connect into cubes and scramble back into individual components based on the temperature of their environment. This accomplishment is another step towards chemical systems that more realistically mimic life. 'Imagine mixing two liquids together, like ink and water. They will automatically do the simple chemical process of dispersing until they are perfectly mixed,' said Professor Shuichi Hiraoka of the University of Tokyo.

Introducing a kinder, gentler way to blow holes in cells

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 06:37 AM PDT

Getting big molecules into cells isn't easy, and it isn't easy on the cells, either. Bulk electroporation blows holes throughout the cell and can kill many of them. Viruses like AAV have limited capacity for macromolecules like Cas9, and lentivirus has safety issues. A new, gentler form of electroporation, called nanoEP, causes less trauma to cells and is more efficient, potentially boosting delivery of large molecules for gene editing or CAR T-cell immunotherapy.

Home-based tools can help assess dementia risk and progression

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 06:37 AM PDT

Researchers report on a novel four-year, randomized clinical trial evaluating different home-based methods to assess cognitive function and decline in participants over the age of 75.

Movement toward a stool test for liver cirrhosis

Posted: 29 Mar 2019 04:59 AM PDT

In a study of people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and their twins and other close relatives, researchers were able to diagnose liver cirrhosis simply by analyzing a person's stool microbes.

New way of designing systems against correlated disruptions uses negative probability

Posted: 28 Mar 2019 02:37 PM PDT

Until now, systems engineers have struggled with the problem of planning for disaster impacts that are linked by correlation -- like those of earthquakes and tsunamis -- because of the cumbersome calculations necessary to precisely quantify the probabilities of all possible combinations of disruption occurrences. Now researchers have developed a new method for designing and optimizing systems subject to correlated disruptions.

Winds of change: Solar variability weakens the Walker cell

Posted: 28 Mar 2019 12:09 PM PDT

Researchers have found robust evidence for signatures of the 11-year sunspot cycle in the tropical Pacific. They analyzed historical time series of pressure, surface winds, and precipitation with focus on the Walker Circulation -- a vast system of atmospheric flow in the tropical Pacific region that affects patterns of tropical rainfall. They have revealed that during periods of increased solar irradiance, the trade winds weaken and the Walker circulation shifts eastwards.

A key to soybean cyst nematode growth identified

Posted: 28 Mar 2019 12:09 PM PDT

The soybean cyst nematode, one of the crop's most destructive pests, isn't like most of its wormy relatives. Whereas the vast majority of nematodes look like the microscopic worms they are, the female soybean cyst nematode shape-shifts into a tiny lemon after feeding on soybean roots.

Screening for colorectal cancer at 45 would avert deaths, but testing older adults would do more

Posted: 28 Mar 2019 12:09 PM PDT

Starting routine colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 would decrease U.S. cancer deaths, but screening a greater number of older and high-risk adults would avert nearly three times as many diagnoses and deaths at a lower cost.

Researchers optimize gene editing for SCD and beta thalassemia

Posted: 28 Mar 2019 12:09 PM PDT

Gene editing of patients' blood stem cells can potentially cure many blood disorders. But introducing targeted edits into these cells has been challenging, and the edits aren't always stable once the cells engraft in the bone marrow. Researchers now report a CRISPR approach that overcomes these technical challenges.

Researchers investigate complex uranium oxides with help from CADES resources

Posted: 28 Mar 2019 12:09 PM PDT

To accelerate the process of identifying novel uranium oxide phases, researchers studied 4,600 different potential crystal structures of uranium oxide compositions on Metis, a CADES high-performance computing cluster. An improved understanding of uranium oxides, which fuel the vast majority of the U.S. nuclear power fleet, could lead to the development of improved fuels or waste storage materials.

Harnessing plant hormones for food security in Africa

Posted: 28 Mar 2019 12:08 PM PDT

Striga is a parasitic plant that threatens the food supply of 300 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. Scientists have found that they can take advantage of Striga's Achilles' Heel: if it can't find a host plant, it dies. The scientists have developed a technique that has potential to reduce the impact of Striga by more than half, helping to safeguard food supplies and farmers' livelihoods.